Flow (shear stress)-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries in diabetes.
ABSTRACT Shear stress due to blood flow is the most important force stimulating vascular endothelium. Acute stimulation of the endothelium by shear stress induces a vasodilatation mainly due to the release of nitric oxide (NO) among other relaxing agents. After a chronic increase in blood flow (shear stress), the endothelium triggers diameter enlargement, medial hypertrophy and improvement of arterial contractility and endothelium-mediated dilation. Shear stress-mediated outward remodeling requires an initial inflammatory response followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxinitrite anions, which activate MMPs and extracellular matrix digestion allowing diameter expansion. This outward remodeling occurs in collateral growth following occlusion of a large artery. In diabetes, an excessive ROS production is associated with the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the glycation of enzymes involved in vascular tone. The balance between inflammation, AGEs and ROS level determines the ability of resistance arteries to develop outward remodeling whereas AGEs and ROS contribute to decrease endothelium-mediated dilation in remodeled vessels. This review explores the interaction between ROS, AGEs and the endothelium in shear stress-mediated outward remodeling of resistance arteries in diabetes. Restoring or maintaining this remodeling is essential for an efficient blood flow in distal organs.
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ABSTRACT: Motivations This study performed skin-surface laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of verifying if complexity analysis applied to the beat-to-beat LDF waveform index can be used to discriminate diabetic, prediabetic, and normoglycemic subjects. Methods Sixty-six subjects were assigned to three age-matched groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat analysis was performed on the pulsatile LDF waveform to obtain the pulse-to-mean ratio (AD) and pulse width (PW), and then approximate-entropy (ApEn) values for their 20-minute index sequences were calculated to evaluate the signal complexity. Results AD and PW did not differ significant among the three study groups. ApEn values of AD and PW were significantly larger and marginally larger, respectively, in the diabetic group than in the prediabetic and normoglycemic groups. Conclusion These results indicate the presence of significant differences in ApEn indexes among diabetic, prediabetic, and normoglycemic subjects. The presence of increased complexity in the LDF index sequence may be partly attributed to the adaptability of the microcirculatory regulatory activities or the impairment of the homeostasis mechanism of microcirculatory-blood-flow perfusion. The present findings may be pertinent to the early detection of the diabetes-induced impairment of this perfusion.Microvascular Research 01/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A chronic increase in blood flow in resistance arteries is associated with increased lumen diameter (outward remodeling) and improved endothelium (NO)-mediated relaxation. Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases. Nevertheless, it is impaired in 12 to 24-month old rats and in young Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats due to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress. As type 2 diabetes occurs preferentially in older subjects we investigated flow-mediated remodeling and the effect of the AGEs breaker ALT-711 associated or not to the antioxidant TEMPOL in one-year old lean (LZ) and ZDF rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to high (HF) or normal blood flow (NF) in vivo. They were collected after 2 weeks for in vitro analysis. In LZ rats, diameter expansion did not occur despite a significant increase in blood flow in HF arteries. Nevertheless, endothelium-mediated relaxation was higher in HF than in NF arteries. ALT-711, alone or in combination with TEMPOL, restored outward remodeling in HF arteries in association with AGEs reduction. TEMPOL alone had no effect. ALT-711, TEMPOL or the combination of the 2 drugs did not significantly affect endothelium-mediated relaxation in HF and NF arteries.In ZDF rats, diameter did not increase despite the increase in blood flow and endothelium-mediated relaxation was further decreased in HF arteries in association with AGEs accumulation and excessive oxidative stress. In both NF and HF arteries, endothelium-mediated relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats. ALT-711, TEMPOL or their combination did not improve remodeling (diameter equivalent in HF and NF arteries). In parallel, they did not reduce AGEs level and did not improve MMPs activity. Nevertheless, ALT-711 and TEMPOL partly improved endothelium-mediated relaxation through a reduction of oxidative stress and the association of ALT-711 and TEMPOL fully restored relaxation to the level found in LZ rats. ALT-711 did not improve outward remodeling in mature ZDF rats but it reduced oxidative stress and consequently improved endothelium-dependent relaxation. In mature LZ rats, ALT-711 improved outward remodeling and reduced AGEs level. Consequently, AGEs breaking is differently useful in ageing whether it is associated with diabetes or not.Cardiovascular Diabetology 03/2014; 13(1):55. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Oxidative stress is one of the mediators of this disease. Systemic complications of oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, shortened erythrocyte lifespan, deformability, and nitric oxide (NO) dysfunction. L-carnosine is known as an antioxidant. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of carnosine on hemorheologic and cardiovascular parameters in CKD-induced rats. Material and Methods We used 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Three days after subtotal nephrectomy and sham operations, the surviving rats were divided into the 4 groups; 1) Sham (S), 2) Sham+Carnosine (S-C), 3) Subtotal nephrectomy (Nx), and 4) Subtotal nephrectomy + Carnosine (N-C). Carnosine was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) (50 mg/kg) for 15 days. The control group received the same volume of physiological saline. Results In CKD rats, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased, and NO and RBC deformability were decreased compared to Sham. Carnosine treatment decreased MDA levels, improved RBC (red blood cell) ability to deform, and increased NO levels. However, carnosine did not affect blood pressure levels in these rats. Conclusions We found that carnosine has beneficial effects on CKD in terms of lipid peroxidation and RBC deformability. Carnosine may have a healing effect in microcirculation level, but may not have any effect on systemic blood pressure in CKD-induced rats.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2014; 20:399-405. · 1.36 Impact Factor