Anti-inflammatory effect of Lycium Fruit water extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
ABSTRACT Lycium Fruit has been used as a traditional drug for low back pain and chronic cough in east-Asian countries. However, inhibitory effects of Lycium Fruit water extract (LFWE) on inflammation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of LFWE on pro-inflammatory mediator production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. LFWE inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E₂, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production as well as their synthesizing enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression. Furthermore, LFWE inhibited phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as suppression of IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB upon LPS stimulation. In addition, LFWE suppressed NO, PGE₂, TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Taken together, our results suggest that LFWE inhibits the production of various inflammatory mediators via blockade on the MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. This finding first explains the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect by LFWE in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells.