Pneumonitis associated with mTOR inhibitors therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Incidence, radiographic findings and correlation with clinical outcome

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, United States.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) (Impact Factor: 4.82). 04/2012; 48(10):1519-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.03.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are approved for use in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and are under investigation in several other malignancies. We assessed the incidence, clinical presentation and computed tomography (CT) findings of pneumonitis associated with mTOR inhibitors in mRCC. Correlation between radiological findings of pneumonitis and clinical outcome was also determined.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and serial CT scans from patients with mRCC treated with either temsirolimus or everolimus. Serial chest CT scans were reviewed in consensus, read by two independent radiologists for the presence of pneumonitis, and corresponding clinical data were reviewed for symptoms and clinical outcome. The baseline and follow up CTs were reviewed to assess outcome to therapy.
The study population consisted of 46 pts, 21 treated with temsirolimus and 25 with everolimus (M:F 2.5:1; median 63 years, range 31-79 years). CT evidence of pneumonitis was seen in 14/46 pts (30%), at a median of 56days on mTOR inhibitor treatment (range 31-214 days). Respiratory symptoms at the time of radiographically detected pneumonitis, were observed in 7pts. Stable disease (SD) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) was achieved in 12/14 pts (86%) who developed radiographic pneumonitis compared to 14/32 (44%) without pneumonitis (p=0.01) The mean change of tumour long axis size for target lesions by RECIST, normalised for 30 days on therapy was -2.9% in the pneumonitis group and +4.3% in the non-pneumonitis group (p=.002).
Preliminary data suggest that pneumonitis may be a marker of stable disease by RECIST and therefore, of therapeutic benefit. Careful patient assessment should be undertaken before the drug is discontinued.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Targeted anticancer therapies have been developed to interfere with specific target molecules including those of downstream pathways required for tumor growth and progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been considered as one of the target molecules of cancer growth, and its inhibitors have been reported to exert an anticancer effect in various malignant tumors. The pulmonary disorder is one of the major side effects of anticancer drugs including mTOR inhibitor (mTORi), and the diagnosis of lung injury induced by medication is difficult because of non-specific nature of the radiological findings. In this study, we present the detailed autopsy findings of a patient who developed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) following mTORi treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We also studied 19 cases of DAD derived from other diseases and 9 cases with non-pathological lung. Of interest, pneumocytes of the patients with DAD, who received other anticancer drugs or contacted bacteria, demonstrated significantly lower mTOR activities than pneumocytes of those with non-pathological lung tissue, as judged by the immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast, both pneumocytes and T cells in DAD tissues of the patient treated with mTORi showed higher mTOR activities than those of patients with DAD of other causes, suggesting that the enhanced mTOR signaling may be involved in the development of DAD after mTORi treatment. This unexpected finding needs to be confirmed in other patients treated with mTORi. In conclusion, the attenuated mTOR signaling in pneumocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DAD in patients without mTORi treatment.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2014; 234(1):67-75. DOI:10.1620/tjem.234.67 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an adverse event which occurs also during targeted treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Experiences on ILD-management in mRCC remain limited. mRCC patients treated with everolimus, temsirolimus, or sunitinib at three centres from January 2006 until December 2009 were analysed, retrospectively. Medical records and imaging studies, as well as clinical course, the incidence, diagnostic measures, treatment, and outcome of ILD were assessed. Twenty-six ILD patients (11 %) were identified out of 237 mRCC patients. Median treatment until ILD-diagnosis was 3.8 (range: 1-21.5) months. The ILD-frequency was 2.7 % (n = 6/226) during sunitinib therapy and 19.8 % (n = 20/101) during m-TOR-inhibitor treatment. Cough was the prevailing symptom (69.2 %, n = 18). Bronchoalveolar lavage reviled often lymphocytic (42.9 %, n = 6/14) or eosinophilic cellularity (28.6 %, n = 4/14). Dose reduction (42.3 %, n = 11), treatment interruption (46.2 %, n = 12) or termination (23.1 %, n = 6), and steroid application (34.6 %, n = 9) were common measures in ILD. Interestingly, eosinophilic ILD required pulsed steroids. Improvement occurred in 73.7 % of symptomatic patients. Continuation of targeted therapies was warranted in 65.4 % of ILD patients. No patient died from ILD. ILD during targeted mRCC treatment is common, and supportive measures should be adapted to the clinical course, and potentially in dependence of BAL findings. Re-exposure to targeted therapies appears feasible.
    Medical Oncology 09/2014; 31(9):147. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0147-9 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatment underwent significant advancement that resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the prognosis of this disease. This review will provide an updated review of currently approved treatment options, namely antiangiogenic and immunotherapy, as well as treatment guideline recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). We will summarize studies ongoing in determining prognostic and predictive biomarkers in maximizing therapeutic benefit in the treatment of this disease. Lastly, we will discuss promising agents in clinical testing.