Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are approved for use in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and are under investigation in several other malignancies. We assessed the incidence, clinical presentation and computed tomography (CT) findings of pneumonitis associated with mTOR inhibitors in mRCC. Correlation between radiological findings of pneumonitis and clinical outcome was also determined.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and serial CT scans from patients with mRCC treated with either temsirolimus or everolimus. Serial chest CT scans were reviewed in consensus, read by two independent radiologists for the presence of pneumonitis, and corresponding clinical data were reviewed for symptoms and clinical outcome. The baseline and follow up CTs were reviewed to assess outcome to therapy.
The study population consisted of 46 pts, 21 treated with temsirolimus and 25 with everolimus (M:F 2.5:1; median 63 years, range 31-79 years). CT evidence of pneumonitis was seen in 14/46 pts (30%), at a median of 56days on mTOR inhibitor treatment (range 31-214 days). Respiratory symptoms at the time of radiographically detected pneumonitis, were observed in 7pts. Stable disease (SD) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) was achieved in 12/14 pts (86%) who developed radiographic pneumonitis compared to 14/32 (44%) without pneumonitis (p=0.01) The mean change of tumour long axis size for target lesions by RECIST, normalised for 30 days on therapy was -2.9% in the pneumonitis group and +4.3% in the non-pneumonitis group (p=.002).
Preliminary data suggest that pneumonitis may be a marker of stable disease by RECIST and therefore, of therapeutic benefit. Careful patient assessment should be undertaken before the drug is discontinued.
"The vast majority of these cases are clinically mild; however, fatal cases, such as those associated with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), are rare (Pham et al. 2004; Dabydeen et al. 2012). The mTORi-induced lung injuries are most often diagnosed by clinical findings and/or imaging without pathological examination (Dabydeen et al. 2012). To the best of our knowledge, only one study has reported detailed histopathological findings associated with mTORi-induced lung injury (Pham et al. 2004), in which they have described the pathological findings associated with mTORi-induced lung injury, including organizing pneumonia, focal fibrosis, and non-specific pneumonia. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted anticancer therapies have been developed to interfere with specific target molecules including those of downstream pathways required for tumor growth and progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been considered as one of the target molecules of cancer growth, and its inhibitors have been reported to exert an anticancer effect in various malignant tumors. The pulmonary disorder is one of the major side effects of anticancer drugs including mTOR inhibitor (mTORi), and the diagnosis of lung injury induced by medication is difficult because of non-specific nature of the radiological findings. In this study, we present the detailed autopsy findings of a patient who developed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) following mTORi treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We also studied 19 cases of DAD derived from other diseases and 9 cases with non-pathological lung. Of interest, pneumocytes of the patients with DAD, who received other anticancer drugs or contacted bacteria, demonstrated significantly lower mTOR activities than pneumocytes of those with non-pathological lung tissue, as judged by the immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast, both pneumocytes and T cells in DAD tissues of the patient treated with mTORi showed higher mTOR activities than those of patients with DAD of other causes, suggesting that the enhanced mTOR signaling may be involved in the development of DAD after mTORi treatment. This unexpected finding needs to be confirmed in other patients treated with mTORi. In conclusion, the attenuated mTOR signaling in pneumocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DAD in patients without mTORi treatment.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2014; 234(1):67-75. DOI:10.1620/tjem.234.67 · 1.35 Impact Factor
"One retrospective study reviewed 44 patients metastatic RCC treated with temsirolimus or everolimus to investigate the association of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis and outcomes (Dabydeen et al, 2011). Stable disease was achieved in 12 out of 14 patients (86%) who developed pneumonitis compared with 13 out of 30 (43%) without pneumonitis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances, metastatic renal cell carcinoma remains largely an incurable disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have provided improvements in clinical outcomes. High-dose interleukin 2 remains an option for highly selected patients and is associated with durable remissions in a small minority of patients. The toxicity profiles of specific agents and patient characteristics and comorbidities and costs have an important role in the current choice of therapy. Major challenges encountered in developing molecular biomarkers to guide therapy are tumour heterogeneity and standardisation of tissue collection and analysis. Although biomarkers are in their infancy of development, they should be a priority in early preclinical and clinical development in order to guide rational tailored development of emerging agents.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 107(7):1009-16. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.399 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatment underwent significant advancement that resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the prognosis of this disease. This review will provide an updated review of currently approved treatment options, namely antiangiogenic and immunotherapy, as well as treatment guideline recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). We will summarize studies ongoing in determining prognostic and predictive biomarkers in maximizing therapeutic benefit in the treatment of this disease. Lastly, we will discuss promising agents in clinical testing.
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