Channel Surface Patterning of Alternating Biomimetic Protein Combinations for Enhanced Microfluidic Tumor Cell Isolation

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.
Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.83). 04/2012; 84(9):4022-8. DOI: 10.1021/ac2033408
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Here, we report a new method for multicomponent protein patterning in a microchannel and also a technique for improving immunoaffinity-based circulating tumor cell (CTC) capture by patterning regions of alternating adhesive proteins using the new method. The first of two proteins, antiepithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM), provides the specificity for CTC capture. The second, E-selectin, increases CTC capture under shear. Patterning regions with and without E-selectin allows captured leukocytes, which also bind E-selectin and are unwanted impurities in CTC isolation, to roll a short distance and detach from the capture surface. This reduces leukocyte capture by up to 82%. The patterning is combined with a leukocyte elution step in which a calcium chelating buffer effectively deactivates E-selectin so that leukocytes may be rinsed away 60% more efficiently than with a buffer containing calcium. The alternating patterning of this biomimetic protein combination, used in conjunction with the elution step, reduces capture of leukocytes while maintaining a high tumor cell capture efficiency that is up to 1.9 times higher than the tumor cell capture efficiency of a surface with only anti-EpCAM. The new patterning technique described here does not require mask alignment and can be used to spatially control the immobilization of any two proteins or protein mixtures inside a sealed microfluidic channel.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are low frequency cells found in the bloodstream after having been shed from a primary tumor. These cells are research targets because of the information they may potentially provide about both an individual cancer as well as the mechanisms through which cancer spreads in the process of metastasis. Established technologies exist for CTC isolation, but the recent progress and future of this field lie in nanomaterials. In this review, we provide perspective into historical CTC capture as well as current research being conducted, emphasizing the significance of the materials being used to fabricate these devices. The modern investigation into CTCs initially featured techniques that have since been commercialized. A major innovation in the field was the development of a microfluidic capture device, first fabricated in silicon and followed up with glass and thermopolymer devices. We then specifically highlight the technologies incorporating magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanopillars, nanofibers, and nanoroughened surfaces, graphene oxide and their fabrication methods. The nanoscale provides a new set of tools that has the potential to overcome current limitations associated with CTC capture and analysis. We believe the current trajectory of the field is in the direction of nanomaterials, allowing the improvements necessary to further CTC research.
    ACS Nano 03/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.1021/nn5004277 · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blood plays an important role in homeostatic regulation with each of its cellular components having important therapeutic and diagnostic uses. Therefore, separation and sorting of blood cells hasa been of a great interest to clinicians and researchers. However, while conventional methods of processing blood have been successful in generating relatively pure fractions, they are time consuming, labor intensive, and are not optimal for processing small volume blood samples. In recent years, microfluidics has garnered great interest from clinicians and researchers as a powerful technology for separating blood into different cell fractions. As microfluidics involves fluid manipulation at the microscale level, it has the potential for achieving high-resolution separation and sorting of blood cells down to a single-cell level, with an added benefit of integrating physical and biological methods for blood cell separation and analysis on the same single chip platform. This paper will first review the conventional methods of processing and sorting blood cells, followed by a discussion on how microfluidics is emerging as an efficient tool to rapidly change the field of blood cell sorting for blood-based therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
    Small 05/2014; 10(9). DOI:10.1002/smll.201302907 · 7.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective quantification and in situ identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood are still elusive because of the extreme rarity and heterogeneity of the cells. In our previous studies, we developed a novel platform that captures tumor cells at significantly improved efficiency in vitro using a unique biomimetic combination of two physiological processes: E-selectin-induced cell rolling and poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-mediated strong multivalent binding. Herein, we have engineered a novel multifunctional surface, on the basis of the biomimetic cell capture, through optimized incorporation of multiple antibodies directed to cancer cell-specific surface markers, such as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA). The surfaces were tested using a series of tumor cells, MDA-PCa-2b, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-361, both in mixture in vitro and after being spiked into human blood. Our multifunctional surface demonstrated highly efficient capture of tumor cells in human blood, achieving up to 82% capture efficiency (∼10-fold enhancement than a surface with the antibodies alone) and up to 90% purity. Furthermore, the multipatterned antibodies allowed differential capturing of the tumor cells. These results support that our multifunctional surface has great potential as an effective platform that accommodates virtually any antibodies, which will likely lead to clinically significant, differential detection of CTCs that are rare and highly heterogeneous.
    Analytical Chemistry 06/2014; 86(12). DOI:10.1021/ac501243a · 5.83 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014