Magnetic tunnel junction design margin exploration for self-reference sensing scheme.
ABSTRACT This work investigates the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) design requirements for the application of nondestructive self-reference sensing scheme, a novel sensing scheme featuring high tolerance of process variations, fast sensing speed, and no impact on device reliability. Unlike the conventional sensing scheme that requires a large TMR ratio and the uniform antiparallel and parallel resistances for MTJs, the nondestructive self-reference sensing scheme is more sensitive to the roll-off slope of MTJ's R-I or R-V curve. Our purpose is to provide a guidance to facilitate MTJ design used in the nondestructive self-reference scheme. In this work, we comprehensively investigate and analyze the design matrix by considering MTJ device physical properties, such as bias voltage dependent conductance, spin torque, etc. The manuscript suggests the approaches to optimize MTJ design for better trade-off between device properties and circuit design.
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ABSTRACT: We calculate the spin-transfer torque in Fe/MgO/Fe tunnel junctions and compare the results with those for all-metallic junctions. The spin-transfer torque is interfacial due to the half-metallic nature of the Fe Delta1 states. For samples with typical interfacial roughness, the in-plane torque varies linearly with bias and the out-of-plane torque varies quadratically, both in quantitative agreement with experiment. For ideal samples, we predict that the out-of-plane component of the torque varies linearly with bias and oscillates as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness.Physical Review Letters 05/2008; 100(18):186805. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We predict an anomalous bias dependence of the spin transfer torque parallel to the interface, Tparallel, in magnetic tunnel junctions, which can be selectively tuned by the exchange splitting. It may exhibit a sign reversal without a corresponding sign reversal of the bias or even a quadratic bias dependence. We demonstrate that the underlying mechanism is the interplay of spin currents for the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) configurations, which vary linearly (quadratically) with bias, respectively, due to the symmetric (asymmetric) nature of the barrier. The spin transfer torque perpendicular to interface exhibits a quadratic bias dependence.Physical Review Letters 01/2007; 97(23):237205. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We predict an oscillatory bias behavior of the fieldlike spin torque, T(perpendicular), in magnetic tunnel junctions, which can be selectively controlled via the asymmetry in band filling between the ferromagnetic leads. This can lead to a linear or quadratic low-bias behavior, including tuning the bias-induced reversal of T(perpendicular). These findings reconcile the apparently contradictory experimental results recently reported in the literature. The underlying mechanism for the nonequilibrium interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) of noncollinear configurations is the interplay of four independent IEC for the majority- and minority-spin bands of the leads solely in the ferromagnetic configuration.Physical Review Letters 07/2009; 103(5):057206. · 7.73 Impact Factor
Magnetic tunnel junction design margin exploration for self-reference
Z. Sun,1,a)H. Li,1,b)and X. Wang2,c)
1Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Polytechnic Institute of New York University,
6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA
2Seagate Technology LLC, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435, USA
(Presented 31 October 2011; received 6 October 2011; accepted 19 December 2011; published
online 13 March 2012)
This work investigates the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) design requirements for the application
of nondestructive self-reference sensing scheme, a novel sensing scheme featuring high tolerance
of process variations, fast sensing speed, and no impact on device reliability. Unlike the
conventional sensing scheme that requires a large TMR ratio and the uniform antiparallel and
parallel resistances for MTJs, the nondestructive self-reference sensing scheme is more sensitive to
the roll-off slope of MTJ’s R-I or R-V curve. Our purpose is to provide a guidance to facilitate
MTJ design used in the nondestructive self-reference scheme. In this work, we comprehensively
investigate and analyze the design matrix by considering MTJ device physical properties, such as
bias voltage dependent conductance, spin torque, etc. The manuscript suggests the approaches to
optimize MTJ design for better trade-off between device properties and circuit design. V
American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3679647]
Spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM)
becomes a promising memory candidate for the future com-
puting systems because of its fast access time, high density,
nonvolatility, small write current, and good scalability. How-
ever, similar to all the other nano-scale technologies, STT-
RAM suffers from significant process variations, which causes
large distributions of the antiparallel and parallel resistances
of memory cells. As the fabrication technology keeps scaling
down, the process variations demonstrate more and more
severe impacts. Consequently, the read failures of the conven-
tional sense scheme using dummy cells as references increase
dramatically and hence resultinintolerablelowyield.
Some self-reference sensing schemes were proposed to
overcome bit-to-bit process variations in magnetic tunnel
junction (MTJ) resistance. The conventional self-reference
sensing scheme1compares the original value to a reference
value written into the same MTJ. The two write steps incur
high power consumption and long access latency, as well as
raise the concern about the device reliability.
Recently, a nondestructive self reference sensing scheme
(NSRS)2–4have been proposed by leveraging the different
current/voltage dependence of the antiparallel and the parallel
resistance states of an MTJ. Compared to the conventional
self reference scheme, NSRS significantly reduces read la-
tency and power consumption by eliminating write steps.
However, it requires a larger read current or voltage which
could induce unwanted MTJ flips during read. In this work,
we investigate and analyze MTJ design matrix by comprehen-
sively considering device physical properties (such as bias
voltage dependent conductance, spin torque, etc.) and circuit
considerations in NSRS. The purpose of the work is to pro-
vide a guidance to facilitate MTJ optimization with a better
trade-off between device properties and circuit design.
II. NONDESTRUCTIVE SELF-REFERENCE SENSING
The nondestructive self reference scheme (NSRS)2is
based on the unique feature of MgO-based MTJ: the current
dependence of the antiparallel and the parallel resistance
states of an MTJ are quite different. Figure 1 shows the
measured R-I sweep curve of an MgO-based MTJ with
90nm?180nm cell size, under a 40ns voltage pulse.
Some points missing from the 40ns pulse measurement are
extrapolated based on DC (static) measurement. When the
applied current or voltage increases, the antiparallel-state
resistance of MTJ decreases rapidly. On the contrary, the
parallel-state resistance merely changes as the current or
FIG. 1. (Color online) The measured R-I sweep curve of a typical MgO-
based MTJ (Ref. 3).
a)Electronic mail: email@example.com.
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C 2012 American Institute of Physics 111, 07C726-1
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 111, 07C726 (2012)
NSRS can be classified as current- or voltage-driven
designs, which is determined by applying given read currents
or voltages, respectively. The read operation of NSRS
includes three steps. For example, in a current-driven design,
first we apply a small read current IR1to generate a sensing
voltage VO1¼IR1RAP1or IR1RP1. Here, RAP1and RP1repre-
sent the MTJ resistance under current IR1at antiparallel (AP)
or parallel (P) states, respectively. VO1is stored in a capaci-
tor. Next, a larger current IR2¼2IR1is applied. The corre-
depending on the MTJ resistance state. To cancel out the
impact of the increased read current amplitude, we use a
voltage divider to produce V0
state can be detected by checking DVO¼VO1?V0
shown in Fig. 1, DVO,AP¼IR1(RAP1?RAP2) ? 0 if the MTJ
is at antiparallel state. On the contrary, when the MTJ is at
parallel state, DVO,P¼IR1(RP1?RP2) ? 0. In NSRS design,
DVO,APis defined as the sense margin, which must be large
enough to be detected by the sense amplifier.
Since the current or voltage in read operations are
injected from the free layer to the reference layer of MTJ,
the MTJ state could be flipped from AP to P, which is called
as read disturbance. Note that the MTJ read disturbance
from P to AP never happens.
O2¼0.5VO2. Finally, the MTJ
III. MTJ DEVICE PHYSICS FOR SELF REFERENCE
MTJ resistance and spin torque dependence upon bias-
ing voltage recently have been extensively investigated
through experimental and theoretical approaches.5–17This
dependence in general can be written as:
GP;AP¼ GP;AP;0ð1 þ bP;APV þ cP;APjVjcþ dP;APV2Þ;
T==¼ T==0ðb==V þ c==jVjcþ d==V2Þ;
T?¼ T?0ð1 þ b?V þ c?jVjcþ d?V2Þ:
Where G is conductance, T is spin torque with == denoting
longitudinal component and ? denoting perpendicular com-
ponent. The coefficients (a, b, c, d, c, l) are determined by
electronic and spin tunneling process across the barrier.
For elastic tunneling, the terms depending upon absolute
value of voltage can be dropped: CP;AP¼ 0, C==;?¼ 0. For
elastic tunneling through a symmetric ferromagnetic-insula-
tor-ferromagnetic FM/I/FM junction structure, above equa-
tion can be simplified as
GP;AP¼ GP;AP;0ð1 þ dP;APV2Þ;
T==¼ T==0ðb==V þ d==V2Þ;
T?¼ T?0ð1 þ d?V2Þ:
Notice only quadratic voltage dependence terms appear in
conductance and perpendicular spin torque.
For elastic tunneling through symmetric FM/I/FM struc-
ture, in the case of high tunneling barrier, coefficient dP,AP
dependence upon barrier height and thickness can be analyti-
cally obtained through WKB approximation. According to
where d is barrier thickness and / is barrier height, reducing
tunneling barrier height for fixed barrier thickness could
increase slope of resistance dependence upon voltage. How-
ever this will decrease tunneling resistance and increase spin
torque magnitude. For high barrier case, MTJ resistance and
spin torque is inversely proportional to exponential of energy
barrier, decreasing tunneling barrier height alone could signif-
icantly decrease resistance and increase spin torque. This will
cause more disturbance and error in self-reference sensing
scheme. However, if barrier thickness and barrier height
could be tuned in a way such that
remains the same, there is a chance to increase resistance
roll-off sensitivity and remain the same or even reduce the re-
sistance and spin torque magnitude for less read disturbance.
Another way to manipulate resistance roll-off curve and
spin torque roll-off is through asymmetric structure and/or
inelastic scattering. For example, in inelastic scattering, dif-
ferent physics mechanism will generate different resistance
roll-off and spin torque roll-off. This is reflected as different
exponential of absolute value of voltage as in above formula.
We will explore more general case in future publications.
IV. SELF REFERENCE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION
To reflect the latest research status, we selected the MTJ
device demonstrated by Zhao et al.18as the baseline design,
and then explore the MTJ design space in NSRS by varying
the key parameters. The baseline MTJ design has a dimen-
sion of 130nm?50nm. Its tunneling magnetoresistance
(TMR) ratio is 135%. The resistance area (RA) product at
parallel state is 4.3 Xlm2. Accordingly, RAPand RPat a
close to zero current are 1567X and 667X, respectively. The
thermal stability D is an important parameter affecting MTJ
critical switching current IC0. Zhao et al.18tested it in two
different ways and obtained 50 and 68, respectively. Previ-
ous research works19–21show that the roll-off slope could
range from 1KX=mA to 8KX=mA. To be consistent with
Ref. 18, we selected a moderate value 2KX=mA as the base-
line. IR1is fixed at 0.025mA and the read current pulse dura-
tion2is 7ns. IC0is about 0.152mA.
Figure 2(a) shows the sense margin of the current-driven
NSRS under three roll-off slopes when fixing IC0at 0.152mA.
The sense margin increases as IR2increases. The relationship
between sense margin and roll-off slope as well as IR2are
both in linear manner. When changing IR2from 0.1 mA to
0.15 mA without considering read disturbance, the corre-
sponding sense margin sweeps from 25mV to 190.5mV.
In reality, IR2is constrained by the read disturbance
probability (Prsw). Theoretically, Prswof an MTJ at a read
current IRcan be expressed as2
Prsw¼ 1 ? exp
s? exp ?D 1 ?IR
07C726-2 Sun, Li, and WangJ. Appl. Phys. 111, 07C726 (2012)
Here, t is the sensing current pulse width. D is the thermal stabil-
ity. s is write pulse width; IC0is critical switching current, which
is the minimum current to switch the MTJ resistance for s.
If the minimum requirement of the raw bit yield is set to
be 99.999%, the read disturbance probability then cannot
exceed 0.0001%. Figure 2(b) shows the read disturbance prob-
ability versus IR2by varying IC0. Constrained by the yield, the
sense margin of design with 2KX=mA roll-off slope and 0.102
mA critical switching current turns out to be 50mV. According
to the simulation results, the applied IR2must below 0.07 mA if
IC0¼0.102 mA. If we relax the requirement of raw bit yield to
be 99.99%, the applied IR2must below 0.078 mA.
In summary, once the roll-off slope and spin torque (i.e.
IC0) are determined, the applied read current decides both the
sense margin and read disturbance probability. The absolute
value of MTJ resistance does not affect the effectiveness of
the current-driven NSRS.
NSRS can also be implemented by applying read voltage,
called as voltage-driven NSRS. Two read voltages VR1and
VR2are added on the memory cell successively to generate
sensing currents IO1¼VR1/RAP1 and IO2¼VR2/RAP2 when
MTJ is at antiparallel state, or IO1¼VR1/RP1and IO2¼VR2/
RP2when MTJ is at parallel state. The data stored in MTJ can
be detected by comparing IO1and IO2. Unlike current-driven
NSRS, the absolute values of MTJ resistances have a large
impact on voltage-driven NSRS. Explicitly, RAPand RPdeter-
mine not only the sense margin but also the generated sensing
current and hence the read disturbance probability.
Figure 3(a) shows seven MTJ designs with different pa-
rameters including roll-off slope, critical switching current
(IC0) and resistance at antiparallel state (RAP). IC0is deter-
mined by spin torque. And both IC0and RAPare inversely
proportional to the exponential of energy barrier. Therefore,
as the roll-off slope increases from 2KX=mA to 3KX=mA by
reducing the tunneling barrier. Both IC0and RAPreduce as
shown in Fig. 3(a). Here, Design 1 is the baseline as we
presented in section III. The we change the roll-off slope
from 2KX=mA to 3:2KX=mA. Accordingly, IC0varies from
0.152mA to 0.08mA and RAPvaries from 1567X to 859X.
With different design parameters, Fig. 3(b) shows the
corresponding sense margin and read disturbance probability
of voltage-driven NSRS. The sense margin is proportional to
roll-off slope similar to that of current-driven NSRS. when
the second read voltage is applied, the decreasing of resist-
ance can result in increasing of current flow through MTJ.
So the read switching probability is more sensitive than that
of current-driven NSRS. If the requirement of yield is con-
strained at 99.99%, only Design 1 and Design 2 can meet the
requirement. Their sense margin are 0.08 mA and 0.09 mA,
respectively. If we tight the constraint of the yield require-
ment to be 99.9999%, only Design 1 is legal.
We comprehensively study the MTJ device physics to
provide guidance to facilitate nondestructive self-reference
scheme. Both current- and voltage-driven non-destructive self-
reference schemes have been studied analytically and quantita-
tively based on various MTJ device parameters with the tuning
of the MTJ tunneling barrier, which manipulates antiparallel-
state roll-off slope and spin torque. The simulation results
demonstrate that antiparallel-state roll-off slope and spin tor-
que of MTJ determine the sense margin and read disturbance
probability, respectively for both current- and voltage-driven
schemes. Only voltage-driven scheme is sensitive to the MTJ
absolute resistance in its read disturbance probability.
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FIG. 2. (Color online) (a) Sense margin and (b) read disturbance probability
vs IR2under different design parameters.
FIG. 3. (Color online) Sense margin and read disturbance probability com-
parison of different MTJ designs.
07C726-3Sun, Li, and Wang J. Appl. Phys. 111, 07C726 (2012)