[Sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson disease].
ABSTRACT Sleep disturbances are among the most common disabling nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, awareness of sleep disorders related to PD has increased, reflecting their significant negative impact on the quality of life of the patient. However, sleep disturbances are still often under-recognized. In PD, multiple factors are associated with sleep disturbances; impaired arousal systems and sleep structure as disease-related changes, nocturnal motor symptoms, hallucinations and psychosis, pain, nocturia, depressive symptoms and dopaminergic medication can all cause insomnia. Further, these factors can coexist and influence each other during the course of the disease. In addition, sleep-related breathing disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) can also lead to impaired sleep. Some idiopathic RBD patients have been associated with a risk for developing neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. Therefore, early diagnosis of RBD may have significant clinical implications for neuroprotective strategies. Several studies have revealed an increased incidence of RLS in PD patients compared to the general population. The favorable responses to dopaminergic medications in treating both RLS and PD suggest shared pathophysiologies between the two diseases; however, neuroimaging studies of dopaminergic systems remain inconclusive. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of sleep disturbances in PD and the existing treatments.