The ARMS2 A69S variant and bilateral advanced age-related macular degeneration.
ABSTRACT To identify genetic associations between specific risk genes and bilateral advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a retrospective, observational case series of 1,003 patients: 173 patients with geographic atrophy in at least 1 eye and 830 patients with choroidal neovascularization in at least 1 eye.
Patients underwent clinical examination and fundus photography. The images were subsequently graded using a modified grading system adapted from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Genetic analysis was performed to identify genotypes at 4 AMD-associated variants (ARMS2 A69S, CFH Y402H, C3 R102G, and CFB R32Q) in these patients.
There were no statistically significant relationships between clinical findings and genotypes at CFH, C3, and CFB. The genotype at ARMS2 correlated with bilateral advanced AMD using a variety of comparisons: unilateral geographic atrophy versus bilateral geographic atrophy (P = 0.08), unilateral choroidal neovascularization versus bilateral choroidal neovascularization (P = 9.0 × 10(-8)), and unilateral late AMD versus bilateral late AMD (P = 5.9 × 10(-8)).
In this series, in patients with geographic atrophy or choroidal neovascularization in at least 1 eye, the ARMS2 A69S substitution strongly associated with geographic atrophy or choroidal neovascularization in the fellow eye. The ARMS2 A69S substitution may serve as a marker for bilateral advanced AMD.
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ABSTRACT: On the basis of genomewide linkage studies of families affected with age-related maculopathy (ARM), we previously identified a significant linkage peak on 10q26, which has been independently replicated by several groups. We performed a focused SNP genotyping study of our families and an additional control cohort. We identified a strong association signal overlying three genes, PLEKHA1, LOC387715, and PRSS11. All nonsynonymous SNPs in this critical region were genotyped, yielding a highly significant association (P < .00001) between PLEKHA1/LOC387715 and ARM. Although it is difficult to determine statistically which of these two genes is most important, SNPs in PLEKHA1 are more likely to account for the linkage signal in this region than are SNPs in LOC387715; thus, this gene and its alleles are implicated as an important risk factor for ARM. We also found weaker evidence supporting the possible involvement of the GRK5/RGS10 locus in ARM. These associations appear to be independent of the association of ARM with the Y402H allele of complement factor H, which has previously been reported as a major susceptibility factor for ARM. The combination of our analyses strongly implicates PLEKHA1/LOC387715 as primarily responsible for the evidence of linkage of ARM to the 10q26 locus and as a major contributor to ARM susceptibility. The association of either a single or a double copy of the high-risk allele within the PLEKHA1/LOC387715 locus accounts for an odds ratio of 5.0 (95% confidence interval 3.2-7.9) for ARM and a population attributable risk as high as 57%.The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2005; 77(3):389-407. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 12/2004; 82(11):844-51. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common form of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Variants in the factor H gene (CFH, also known as HF1), which encodes a major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, are associated with the risk for developing AMD. Here we test the hypothesis that variation in genes encoding other regulatory proteins of the same pathway is associated with AMD. We screened factor B (BF) and complement component 2 (C2) genes, located in the major histocompatibility complex class III region, for genetic variation in two independent cohorts comprising approximately 900 individuals with AMD and approximately 400 matched controls. Haplotype analyses identify a statistically significant common risk haplotype (H1) and two protective haplotypes. The L9H variant of BF and the E318D variant of C2 (H10), as well as a variant in intron 10 of C2 and the R32Q variant of BF (H7), confer a significantly reduced risk of AMD (odds ratio = 0.45 and 0.36, respectively). Combined analysis of the C2 and BF haplotypes and CFH variants shows that variation in the two loci can predict the clinical outcome in 74% of the affected individuals and 56% of the controls. These data expand and refine our understanding of the genetic risk for AMD.Nature Genetics 05/2006; 38(4):458-62. · 35.21 Impact Factor