Immunological memory ≠ protective immunity.
ABSTRACT So-called 'immunological memory' is, in my view, a typical example where a field of enquiry, i.e. to understand long-term protection to survive reexposure to infection, has been overtaken by 'l'art pour l'art' of 'basic immunology'. The aim of this critical review is to point out some key differences between academic text book-defined immunological memory and protective immunity as viewed from a co-evolutionary point of view, both from the host and the infectious agents. A key conclusion is that 'immunological memory' of course exists, but only in particular experimental laboratory models measuring 'quicker and better' responses after an earlier immunization. These often do correlate with, but are not the key mechanisms of, protection. Protection depends on pre-existing neutralizing antibodies or pre-activated T cells at the time of infection-as documented by the importance of maternal antibodies around birth for survival of the offspring. Importantly, both high levels of antibodies and of activated T cells are antigen driven. This conclusion has serious implications for our thinking about vaccines and maintaining a level of protection in the population to deal with old and new infectious diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The influence of antigen epitope density and order on B cell induction and antibody production was assessed with the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype Indiana [VSV-G (IND)]. VSV-G (IND) can be found in a highly repetitive form the envelope of VSV-IND and in a poorly organized form on the surface of infected cells. In VSV-G (IND) transgenic mice, B cells were unresponsive to the poorly organized VSV-G (IND) present as self antigen but responded promptly to the same antigen presented in the highly organized form. Thus, antigen organization influences B cell tolerance.Science 12/1993; 262(5138):1448-51. · 31.03 Impact Factor
Article: Immunology taught by viruses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The survival of viruses depends on the survival of susceptible hosts. The vertebrate immune system and viruses have therefore coevolved complementary facets. Evidence from various balanced virus-host relationships illustrates that immunological specificity and memory may best be defined biologically and that the mature immune system does not discriminate between "self" and "nonself." Rather, B cells distinguish antigen patterns, whereas T cell responses depend on localization, transport, and kinetics of antigen within lymphatic organs.Science 02/1996; 271(5246):173-8. · 31.03 Impact Factor
- Biochemistry 08/1964; 3:996-1008. · 3.38 Impact Factor