Aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of lung cancer
ABSTRACT There is evidence that aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) have anti-carcinogenic properties, but their effect on lung cancer, in particular in never-smokers, is unclear. Information on past or current use of anti-inflammatory medication was obtained in 398 Chinese female primary lung cancer cases and 814 controls in a hospital-based study in Singapore. 65% of cases and 88% of controls were never-smokers. Controls were excluded if they had been admitted for conditions associated with aspirin or NSAID use (n=174). Regular aspirin use (twice a week or more, for a month or more) was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.31-0.81 in non-smokers; OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.93 in smokers). Regular use of non-aspirin NSAID, paracetamol, steroid creams and steroid pills was uncommon and no association with lung cancer was detected. Our results suggest that aspirin consumption may reduce lung cancer risk in Asian women and are consistent with current understanding of the role of cyclooxygenase in lung carcinogenesis.
- SourceAvailable from: Muhammad Waqas Muhammad Usman Hingoro
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- "In addition to its chemopreventive effects on colorectal cancers, aspirin has also been shown to have a beneficial role in reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality . A pooled analysis conducted by the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) suggests that aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of lung cancer  regardless of the smoking status of the individual . Of further interest, a study published within the last year suggests that aspirin use may also reduce metastasis of lung cancer cells to the regional lymph nodes, and thus has the potential to extend the lives of lung cancer patients . "
ABSTRACT: Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data from the last two decades have each supported the hypothesis that aspirin possesses anticancer properties, and that its use may also reduce the lifetime probability of developing or dying from a number of cancers. Aspirin's ability to act on multiple key metabolic and signaling pathways via inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, as well as through COX-independent mechanisms, makes it particularly relevant in the fight against cancer. A growing body of evidence indicates that aspirin may not only reduce cancer risk, but also prevent metastasis and angiogenesis while slowing the rate of mutation-inducing DNA damage. These emerging benefits of aspirin are offset to some extent by the known risks of treatment, such as cardiovascular events and gastrointestinal bleeding. However, it has been shown that pre-treatment risk assessment of individual patients and the use of proton pump inhibitors or Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy concomitantly with aspirin treatment can reduce these potential risks. Thus, the significant benefits of aspirin treatment, coupled with recent data concerning its risks, may prove to tip the balance in favor of aspirin use in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2015; 1855(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2015.03.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Breast cancer recurrence rates vary following treatment, suggesting that tumor cells disseminate early from primary sites but remain indolent indefinitely before progressing to symptomatic disease. The reasons why some indolent disseminated tumors erupt into overt disease are unknown. We discovered a novel process by which certain luminal breast cancer (LBC) cells and patient tumor specimens (LBC "instigators") establish a systemic macroenvironment that supports outgrowth of otherwise-indolent disseminated tumors ("responders"). Instigating LBCs secrete cytokines that are absorbed by platelets, which are recruited to responding tumor sites where they aid vessel formation. Instigator-activated bone marrow cells enrich responding tumor cell expression of CD24, an adhesion molecule for platelets, and provide a source of VEGF receptor 2(+) tumor vessel cells. This cascade results in growth of responder adenocarcinomas and is abolished when platelet activation is inhibited by aspirin. These findings highlight the macroenvironment as an important component of disease progression that can be exploited therapeutically. Significance: Currently, processes that mediate progression of otherwise indolent tumors are not well understood, making it difficult to accurately predict which cancer patients are likely to relapse. Our findings highlight the macroenvironment as an important component of disease progression that can be exploited to more accurately identify patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapy.Cancer Discovery 08/2012; 73(3 Supplement). DOI:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0216 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resistance and non-response to aspirin dramatically decreases its therapeutic efficacy. To overcome this issue, a small-molecule thrombus-targeting drug delivery system, aspirin-Arg-Gly-Asp-Val (A-RGDV), is developed by covalently linking Arg-Gly-Asp-Val tetrapeptide with aspirin. The 2D ROESY NMR and ESI-MS spectra support a molecular model of A-RGDV tetramer. Transmission electron micros¬copy images suggest that the tetramer spontaneously assembles to nanoparticles (ranging from 5 to 50 nm in diameter) in water. Scanning electron microscopy images and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the smaller nanoparticles of A-RGDV further assemble to bigger particles that are stable in rat blood. The delivery investigation implies that in rat blood A-RGDV is able to keep the molecular integrality, while in thrombus it releases aspirin. The in vitro antiplatelet aggregation assay suggests that A-RGDV selectively inhibits arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. The mechanisms of action probably include releasing aspirin, modifying cyclic oxidase, and decreasing the expression of GPIIb/IIIa. The in vivo assay demonstrates that the effective anti-thrombotic dose of A-RGDV is 16700 folds lower than the non-responsive dose of aspirin.ACS Nano 08/2013; 7(9). DOI:10.1021/nn402171v · 12.88 Impact Factor