To investigate the association between substance use disorders (SUDs) and the clinical presentation, risk factors, and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) by examining differences among 3 groups: (1) individuals with lifetime MDD and no comorbid SUD (MDD-NSUD); (2) individuals with comorbid MDD and SUD (MDD-SUD); and (3) individuals with substance-induced depressive disorder (SIDD).
Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093). Diagnoses were made using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version.
The lifetime prevalence of MDD-NSUD was 7.41%, whereas those of MDD-SUD and SIDD were 5.82% and 0.26%, respectively. Overall, risk factors for MDD were more common among individuals with MDD-SUD and SIDD than among those with MDD-NSUD. Individuals with MDD-SUD and SIDD had similar rates of comorbidity with any psychiatric disorder, but both groups had higher rates than individuals with MDD-NSUD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.9-2.7 and OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4, respectively). Individuals with SIDD were significantly less likely to receive medication than those with MDD-SUD or MDD-NSUD (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9 for both groups).
MDD-SUD is associated with high overall vulnerability to additional psychopathology, a higher number of and more severe depressive episodes, and higher rates of suicide attempts in comparison to individuals with MDD-NSUD. SIDD has low prevalence in the general population but is associated with increased clinical severity and low rates of medication treatment. Similar patterns of comorbidity and risk factors in individuals with SIDD and those with MDD-SUD suggest that the 2 conditions may share underlying etiologic factors.
"We tested our hypotheses with both 12-month and lifetime MDD. Given the high prevalence of drug and alcohol-related arrests in the US (Snyder, 2012) and the relationship between substance use and MDD (Blanco et al., 2012), the analyses also adjust for the influence of lifetime alcohol and drug dependence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Everyday discrimination contributes negatively to depressive symptomatology among Blacks in the US and being arrested could add to this depression. Using data from the National Survey on American Life, the present study determined the association between an arrest history and major depressive disorder (MDD), while accounting for discrimination among African Americans, US-born Afro-Caribbeans and first-generation Black immigrants. Findings from logistic regression analyses adjusted for discrimination suggested an arrest history is associated with 12-month MDD (Adjusted OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.10) and lifetime MDD (Adjusted OR=1.56 CI=1.17-2.09). Accounting for drug and alcohol dependence attenuated the association between arrest history and 12-month MDD, but not lifetime MDD. The associations between arrest history and both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and discrimination and lifetime MDD varied by ethnic/immigrant group. Specifically, while the association between arrest history and MDD (both 12-month and lifetime) was strongest among US-born Afro-Caribbeans, evidence consistent with the immigrant paradox, the association between discrimination and lifetime MDD was particularly relevant for first-generation Black immigrants, suggesting discrimination may hinder the protection of first-generation status. Mental health prevention and treatment programs should target the stress associated with being arrested and experiencing discrimination among US Blacks.
Psychiatry Research 05/2014; 219(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.020 · 2.47 Impact Factor
"Similarly, mood disorders, including depression and anxiety, are common sources of distress in patients with SUD [36-38], which likewise diminish patient functionality . The overall dysfunction associated with addiction contributes to distress and disability. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders (SUDs), whether active or in remission, are often encountered in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. Clinicians are challenged when managing chronic pain while facing substance abuse issues during the course of chronic opioid therapy (COT). Further, the interrelated behavioral symptomatology of addiction and chronic pain suggests that if one disorder is untreated, effective treatment of the other in not possible. Incomplete understanding of the overlapping presentations of the two disorders, coupled with insufficient management of both conditions, leads to undertreated pain and premature discharge of SUD patients from pain treatment. In order to achieve pain relief and optimal functionality, both conditions need to be carefully managed. This paper reviews the prevalence of SUDs in chronic pain patents; the overlapping presentation of the two disorders; risk factors and stratification for addiction; identification of addiction in the chronic pain population; and suggestions for treating patients with COT, with an emphasis on relapse prevention. With appropriate assessment and treatment, COT for chronic pain patients with a history of SUD can be successful, leading to improved functionality and quality of life.
Addiction science & clinical practice 12/2013; 8(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1940-0640-8-21
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to quantify the prevalence of dual diagnosis and to evaluate the characteristics of these patients from community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, 208 from mental health services and 629 from substance misuse services. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate disorders from axis I and II. It was considered that 517 (61.8%) patients had dual pathology (current diagnoses of axis I or II disorders and an addictive disorder): 36,1% in mental health services and 70,3% in substance misuse services. There were fewer males amongst the dual patients and it was also found that they had a worse employment situation, along with higher figures of alcohol and cannabis dependence than addicts without dual diagnoses (n=194). When comparing them with patients with mental disorder diagnoses only, excluding substance use disorder (n=126), there were differences in all socio-demographic characteristics analyzed, and dual patients were associated with diagnoses of bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and had more suicide risk and different personality disorders. Thus, dual pathology is higher in patients who are in treatment and have differential characteristics (higher suicide risk, worse employment situation) that suggest greater severity that could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.