Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis.
ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in 20- to 34-years-old males. It has been stated that testicular cancer derives from a precocious lesion, the carcinoma in situ of the testis, also known as Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (IGCN) or Testicular Intraepithelial Neoplasia (TIN). This lesion deserves great attention, because the diagnosis of CIS may lead to a precocious diagnosis of testicular cancer. Generally, the diagnosis of CIS is incidental. Every physician should know the management of this precocious lesion, as the correct management of CIS can lead to a decrease of the incidence of overt testicular cancer (the most frequent malignancy in young men). Moreover, the correct diagnosis and management of CIS can shorten the hospital stay, reduce the cost, and improve the social impact of the testicular cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past 30 years, great strides have been made in the treatment of disseminated testicular tumors. Despite the low number of patients and the rarity of studies concerning primary advanced seminoma, the efficacy of chemotherapy is clear, mainly 3-4-cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Aiming to contribute to the understanding and implementation of proper chemotherapeutic management in advanced seminoma patients, we retrospectively summarized our experience with 26 patients who were referred for platinum-based chemotherapy, post-orchiectomy to the Northern Israel Oncology Center between 1989 and 2010. Response rate, side effects, and long-term outcome were investigated. Before chemotherapy, meticulous staging was done, including tumor markers (B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)), and abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans were carried out. All 26 treated patients achieved complete remission, clinically and symptomatically, with normalization of their CT scans. At a median follow-up of 120 months (range, 24-268 months) all patients are alive, without evidence of recurrent disease. One patient whose disease recurred twice achieved a third complete remission following salvage treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Another patient, who preferred surveillance, relapsed abdominally after 9 months but achieved long-standing complete remission with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Both these patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Three patients recovered uneventfully from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Advanced seminoma is a highly curable disease using platinum-based chemotherapy. Our study confirms the efficacy and safety of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced seminoma.Rambam Maimonides medical journal. 01/2014; 5(1):e0005.
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ABSTRACT: In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2012; 3:150.
Article: Spermatogenesis and Cryptorchidism.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cryptorchidism represents the most common endocrine disease in boys, with infertility more frequently observed in bilateral forms. It is also known that undescended testes, if untreated, lead to an increased risk of testicular tumors, usually seminomas, arising from mutant germ cells. In normal testes, germ cell development is an active process starting in the first months of life when the neonatal gonocytes transform into adult dark (AD) spermatogonia. These cells are now thought to be the stem cells useful to support spermatogenesis. Several researches suggest that AD spermatogonia form between 3 and 9 months of age. Not all the neonatal gonocytes transform into AD spermatogonia; indeed, the residual gonocytes undergo involution by apoptosis. In the undescended testes, these transformations are inhibited leading to a deficient pool of stem cells for post pubertal spermatogenesis. Early surgical intervention in infancy may allow the normal development of stem cells for spermatogenesis. Moreover, it is very interesting to note that intra-tubular carcinoma in situ in the second and third decades have enzymatic markers similar to neonatal gonocytes suggesting that these cells fail transformation into AD spermatogonia and likely generate testicular cancer (TC) in cryptorchid men. Orchidopexy between 6 and 12 months of age is recommended to maximize the future fertility potential and decrease the TC risk in adulthood.Frontiers in Endocrinology 05/2014; 5:63.