Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis.
ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in 20- to 34-years-old males. It has been stated that testicular cancer derives from a precocious lesion, the carcinoma in situ of the testis, also known as Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (IGCN) or Testicular Intraepithelial Neoplasia (TIN). This lesion deserves great attention, because the diagnosis of CIS may lead to a precocious diagnosis of testicular cancer. Generally, the diagnosis of CIS is incidental. Every physician should know the management of this precocious lesion, as the correct management of CIS can lead to a decrease of the incidence of overt testicular cancer (the most frequent malignancy in young men). Moreover, the correct diagnosis and management of CIS can shorten the hospital stay, reduce the cost, and improve the social impact of the testicular cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: David H Volle[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2012; 3:150.