An important hallmark of cancer cells is acquired resistance toward apoptosis. The apoptotic pathway is the most well-defined cell death program and is characterized by several morphological and biochemical features. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical regulator of apoptosis in many cell types. p53 stimulates a wide network of signals that act through either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. However, a number of studies have shown that apoptosis can be induced in a p53-independent manner as well. In this study, we examined the mechanism of apoptosis in p53-null breast cancer cells in response to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Initially, we determined the p53 status of 4T1 breast carcinoma and 4THMpc (a highly mestatic derivative of 4T1) cells and verified that both cells are p53 deficient. It was subsequently shown that apoptosis can be induced in both cells in a dose-dependent manner in response to bortezomib treatment, based on DNA fragmentation evidence. Western blot analyses of ubiquitin-protein conjugates additionally showed that the proteasome is potently inhibited by bortezomib in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. The results presented in the current study also show that caspase-3 is significantly activated in response to the treatment with bortezomib, implying that induction of apoptosis in these p53-deficient cells is occuring via caspase-3. The additional results presented here suggest that the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad, Noxa, and Puma are not critical regulators of apoptosis induction in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. Similarly, there was no difference in the expression level of Mcl-1 in treated cells, suggesting that this anti-apoptotic protein is also uninvolved in the apoptotic response resulting from bortezomib treatment. In contrast, a very significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Hsp25/27 was detected in these p53-deficient cells after treatment with bortezomib. If the increased expression of Hsp25/27 protein levels are muting the apoptotic effects of the bortezomib treatment, then the apoptosis-inducing effects of such proteasome inhibitors might be increased with approaches simultaneously inhibiting Hsp25/27 protein in p53-deficient cells.
"are significantly induced in response to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The overexpression of heat shock proteins in response to proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or bortezomib was reported in a number of studies   . Interestingly, a number of proteins involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and/or protein catabolic processes were also significantly up-regulated after treatment with bortezomib. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The 26S proteasome is a proteolytic enzyme found in both cytoplasm and nucleus. In this study, we examined the differential expression of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib-induced proteins in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. It was found that GRP78 and TCEB2 were over-expressed in response to treatment with bortezomib for 24h. Next, we analyzed the expression of intracellular proteins in response to treatment with 100nM bortezomib for 24h by label-free LC-MS/MS. These analyses showed that Hsp70, the 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 and sequestosome 1 were increased at least 2 fold in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. The proteins identified by label-free LC-MS/MS were then analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) Tool to determine biological networks affected by inhibition of the 26S proteasome. The analysis results showed that post-translational modifications, protein folding, DNA replication, energy production and nucleic acid metabolism were found to be among the top functions affected by the 26S proteasome inhibition. The biological network analysis indicated that ubiquitin may be the central regulator of the pathways modulated after bortezomib-treatment. Further investigation of the mechanism of the proteins modulated in response to the proteasomal inhibition may lead to the design of more effective and novel therapeutic strategies for cancer.
Although the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is approved and used for the treatment of human cancer (multiple myeloma), the mechanism of action is not entirely understood. A number of studies showed that proteasome inhibitors induced apoptosis through upregulation of tumor suppressor protein p53. However, the role of tumor suppressor protein p53 in bortezomib-induced apoptosis is controversial and not well-understood. The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in at least 50% of human cancers and is strongly induced by proteasomal inhibition. Some also reported that the proteasome inhibitor can induce apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. Also, it is reported that Noxa, a target of p53, is induced in response to proteasomal inhibition in a p53-independent manner. However, we have also previously reported that neither Puma nor Noxa are induced by proteasomal inhibition in p53-null 4T1 breast cancer cells, which is commonly used for in vivo breast cancer tumor models. The current results provided additional targets of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and may therefore help in understanding the p53-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, the results presented in this current study report for the first time that proteasomal subunit Psmd14, anti-apoptotic GRP78, anti apoptotic protein Card10, Dffb, Traf3 and Trp53bp2 are regulated and overexpressed in response to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in p53-deficient 4T1 cells. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies targeting these anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic proteins as well as inhibiting the proteasome simultaneously may be more effective against cancer cells. The proteins identified here present new avenues for the development of anti-cancer drugs.
Journal of Proteomics 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.09.010 · 3.89 Impact Factor
"The present results, which showed that chloroquine inhibits the hypoxia-induced increased viability of these cells, suggest that in hypoxia, chloroquine may induce other pathways of cell death or growth arrest, independent of p53. This is supported by the fact that the 4T1 cells have been shown to be p53 null (23). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) is an intracellular DNA receptor that is widely expressed in breast and other cancers. We previously demonstrated that low tumor TLR9 expression upon diagnosis is associated with significantly shortened disease-specific survival times in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There are no targeted therapies for this subgroup of patients whose prognosis is among the worst in breast cancer. Due to the previously detected in vitro anti-invasive effects of chloroquine in these cell lines, the present study aimed to investigate the in vivo effects of chloroquine against two clinical subtypes of TNBC that differ in TLR9 expression. Chloroquine suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and protein activity, whereas MMP-13 mRNA expression and proteolytic activity were increased. Despite enhancing TLR9 mRNA expression, chloroquine suppressed TLR9 protein expression in vitro. Daily treatment of mice with intraperitoneal (i.p.) chloroquine (80 mg/kg/day) for 22 days, did not inhibit the growth of control siRNA or TLR9 siRNA MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In conclusion, despite the favorable in vitro effects on TNBC invasion and viability, particularly in hypoxic conditions, chloroquine does not prevent the growth of the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with high or low TLR9 expression levels in vivo. This may be explained by the activating effects of chloroquine on MMP-13 expression or by the fact that chloroquine, by suppressing TLR9 expression, permits the activation of currently unknown molecular pathways, which allow the aggressive behavior of TNBC cells with low TLR9 expression in hypoxia.
"The primary antibodies against Bax (#3331-100), Bcl-2 (#3195-100), RPRP (#3002-100), and the horseradish peroxidase (HPR)-conjugated goat anti-mouse secondary antibody (#6402-05) were obtained from BioVision, Inc. (BioVision, CA, USA) –. The monoclonal antibodies to p53 (#2527) , cleaved Caspase-3 (#9661), cleaved Caspase-9 (#7237), GDPAH (#2118), and the horseradish peroxidase (HPR)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (#7074S) were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. (Cell Signaling Technology, MA, USA) –. The enhanced chemiluminescence kits were purchased from Pioneer Technology, Inc. (Pioneer Technology, USA). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A greater reduction in cancer risk associated with mushroom diet rich in fungus polysaccharides is generally accepted. Meanwhile, edible Pleurotus abalonus as a member of Abalone mushroom family is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly prevents cancer occurrence. However, these anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing tumor-inhibitory responses to the promising polysaccharides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties have not yet been elucidated.
We here fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus into three fractions, namely PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3, and tested these fractions for antiproliferative activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The largest PAP-3, an acidic polysaccharide fraction with a molecular mass of 3.68×10(5) Da, was the most active in inhibiting MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 of 193 µg/mL. The changes in cell normal morphology were observed by DAPI staining and the PAP-3-induced apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The apoptosis was involved in mitochondria-mediated pathway including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-9/3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, as well as intracellular ROS production. PAP-3 also induced up-regulation of p53, and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The incubation of MCF-7 cells with antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis caused by PAP-3, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death.
These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially acidic PAP-3, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for, at least in part, the anticancer health benefits of P. abalonus via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It is a major breakthrough bringing new insight of the potential use of the polysaccharides as health-care food or medicine to provide significant natural defense against human cancer.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64266. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064266 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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