The p53-independent induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells in response to proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.
ABSTRACT An important hallmark of cancer cells is acquired resistance toward apoptosis. The apoptotic pathway is the most well-defined cell death program and is characterized by several morphological and biochemical features. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical regulator of apoptosis in many cell types. p53 stimulates a wide network of signals that act through either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. However, a number of studies have shown that apoptosis can be induced in a p53-independent manner as well. In this study, we examined the mechanism of apoptosis in p53-null breast cancer cells in response to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Initially, we determined the p53 status of 4T1 breast carcinoma and 4THMpc (a highly mestatic derivative of 4T1) cells and verified that both cells are p53 deficient. It was subsequently shown that apoptosis can be induced in both cells in a dose-dependent manner in response to bortezomib treatment, based on DNA fragmentation evidence. Western blot analyses of ubiquitin-protein conjugates additionally showed that the proteasome is potently inhibited by bortezomib in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. The results presented in the current study also show that caspase-3 is significantly activated in response to the treatment with bortezomib, implying that induction of apoptosis in these p53-deficient cells is occuring via caspase-3. The additional results presented here suggest that the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad, Noxa, and Puma are not critical regulators of apoptosis induction in p53-null 4T1 and 4THMpc cells. Similarly, there was no difference in the expression level of Mcl-1 in treated cells, suggesting that this anti-apoptotic protein is also uninvolved in the apoptotic response resulting from bortezomib treatment. In contrast, a very significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Hsp25/27 was detected in these p53-deficient cells after treatment with bortezomib. If the increased expression of Hsp25/27 protein levels are muting the apoptotic effects of the bortezomib treatment, then the apoptosis-inducing effects of such proteasome inhibitors might be increased with approaches simultaneously inhibiting Hsp25/27 protein in p53-deficient cells.
- SourceAvailable from: nature.comCell Death and Differentiation 12/2005; 12 Suppl 2:1457-62. · 8.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death, particularly adhesion-dependent regulation of cell survival and apoptosis, is recognized as one of the main homeostatic mechanisms designed to control cell positioning, eliminate misplaced cells and block metastatic dissemination. Recently we reported that highly metastatic cancer cells exhibit a higher resistance to the programmed cell death compared to their poorly metastatic counterparts (Cancer Lett., 101, 43–51, 1996). However, the molecular and genetic basis for the association of aggressive metastatic phenotype with resistance toward apoptosis remains to be elucidated. Here we extended our investigation on apoptosis and metastasis using a panel of nine murine and human cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential. We examined the relationship of the metastatic ability and the sensitivity to apoptosis as well as determined the status of two major apoptosis execution mechanisms (induction of nuclear Ca2+-dependent endonucleases and activation of ICE-like proteases) in cancer cells with distinct metastatic potential and different sensitivity to apoptosis. We found that high metastatic potential is strictly associated with the increased resistance to apoptosis, diminished level of nuclear Ca2+-dependent endonucleases, and significantly reduced activity of CPP32/Yama death protease. We concluded that high resistance to apoptosis of metastatic cancer cells is associated with and may depend upon the profound deficiency of major apoptosis execution mechanisms.Cancer Letters 06/1997; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells respond to stress by accumulating or activating a set of highly conserved proteins known as heat-shock proteins (HSPs). Several of these proteins interfere negatively with apoptosis. We show that the small HSP known as Hsp27 inhibits cytochrome-c-mediated activation of caspases in the cytosol. Hsp27 does not interfere with granzyme-B-induced activation of caspases, nor with apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated, caspase-independent, nuclear changes. Hsp27 binds to cytochrome c released from the mitochondria to the cytosol and prevents cytochrome-c-mediated interaction of Apaf-1 with procaspase-9. Thus, Hsp27 interferes specifically with the mitochondrial pathway of caspase-dependent cell death.Nature Cell Biology 10/2000; 2(9):645-52. · 20.76 Impact Factor