Article

Correlations between coronary plaque tissue composition assessed by virtual histology and blood levels of biomarkers for coronary artery disease.

Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital & Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Yonsei medical journal (Impact Factor: 0.77). 05/2012; 53(3):508-16. DOI: 10.3349/ymj.2012.53.3.508
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated correlations of coronary plaque composition determined by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and blood levels of biomarkers that represent the vulnerability of coronary plaques.
Pre- and postprocedural blood levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neopterin were measured in 70 patients with stable angina (SA) or unstable angina (UA) who were undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for single lesions. We evaluated the data for correlations between these biomarkers and necrotic core contents in PCI target lesions analyzed by VH.
Clinical characteristics, IVUS, VH, and biomarker blood levels were not different between the SA and the UA group except for more frequent previous statin use (52.3% vs. 23.1%, p=0.017) and lower remodeling index in the SA group (0.98±0.09 vs. 1.10±0.070, p<0.001). Among the biomarkers evaluated, only pre-PCI neopterin level showed a weakly significant correlation with the absolute volume of the necrotic core (r=0.320, p=0.008). Pre- and post-PCI blood levels of sCD40L (r=0.220, p=0.072; r=0.231, p=0.062) and post-PCI blood level of neopterin (r=0.238, p=0.051) showed trends toward weakly positive correlations with the absolute volume of necrotic core.
We found a weakly positive correlation between the pre-PCI neopterin level and necrotic core volume in the PCI-target lesion. The clinical implications of our findings need to be investigated in further studies.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
76 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Today's concept of vulnerable plaque has evolved primarily from the early pioneering work uncovering the pivotal role of plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis as the major cause of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Since the first historical description of plaque rupture in 1844, several key studies by leading researchers and clinicians have lead to the current accepted views on lesion instability. Important to the complex paradigm of plaque destabilization and thrombosis are many discoveries beginning with the earliest descriptions of advanced plaques, reminiscent of abscesses encapsulated by fibrous tissue capable of rupture. It was not until the late 1980s that studies of remodeling provided keen insight into the growth of advanced plaques, beyond the simple accumulation of lipid. The emphasis in the next decade, however, was on a focused shift toward the mechanisms of lesion vulnerability based on the contribution of tissue proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases as an essential factor responsible for thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap. In an attempt to unify the understanding of what constitutes a vulnerable plaque, morphological studies, mostly from autopsy, suggest the importance of necrotic core size, inflammation, and fibrous cap thickness. Definitive proof of the vulnerable plaque, however, remains elusive because animal or human data supporting a cause-and-effect relationship are lacking. Although emerging imagining technologies involving optical coherence tomography, high-resolution MRI, molecular biomarkers, and other techniques have far surpassed the limits of the early days of angiography, advancing the field will require establishing relevant translational animal models that produce vulnerable plaques at risk for rupture and further testing of these modalities in large prospective clinical trials.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2010; 30(7):1282-92. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking and abnormal serum cholesterol concentrations are risk factors for acute coronary syndromes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied whether cigarette smoking and abnormal cholesterol values may precipitate acute coronary thrombosis and sudden death resulting from either rupture of vulnerable coronary plaques or erosion of plaques. We examined the hearts of 113 men with coronary disease who had died suddenly and also analyzed their coronary risk factors. We found an acute coronary thrombus in each of 59 men, and severe narrowing of the coronary artery by an atherosclerotic plaque without acute thrombosis (stable plaque) in 54. Cases of acute thrombosis were divided into two groups: 41 resulting from rupture of a vulnerable plaque (a thin fibrous cap overlying a lipid-rich core), and 18 resulting from the erosion of a fibrous plaque rich in smooth-muscle cells and proteoglycans. Vulnerable plaques that had not ruptured were counted in each heart. Cigarette smoking was a risk factor in 44 (75 percent) of the men with acute thrombosis, as compared with 22 (41 percent) of the men with stable plaques (P<0.001). The mean (+/-SD) ratio of serum total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was markedly elevated in the men who died of acute thrombosis with plaque rupture (mean, 8.5+/-4.0) but only mildly elevated in the men without acute thrombosis (5.5+/-2.4; P<0.001) and in the men with thrombi overlying eroded plaques (5.0+/-1.8; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed an association between an elevated ratio of serum total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol and the presence of vulnerable plaques (P<0.001). Among men with coronary disease who die suddenly, abnormal serum cholesterol concentrations - particularly elevated ratios of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol - predispose patients to rupture of vulnerable plaques, whereas cigarette smoking predisposes patients to acute thrombosis.
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/1997; 336(18):1276-82. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence is redefining traditional concepts of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent data indicate that severe stenoses, the traditional focus of attention, do not cause most coronary events. Rather, interest has increased in the often less stenotic but more vulnerable lesions that are characterized by thin fibrous caps, large lipid accumulations, large numbers of macrophages, and depletion of smooth muscle cells. Such lesions appear prone to rupture, which allows the blood to come into contact with the highly thrombogenic material in the lipid core of the plaque, thereby precipitating thrombosis. The fibrous cap may become weakened through decreased synthesis of the extracellular matrix or increased degradation of the matrix. The cytokine interferon-gamma, produced by T-lymphocytes, inhibits the ability of smooth muscle cells to synthesize collagen, a structurally important component of the fibrous cap. A family of enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases can degrade all major constituents of the vascular extracellular matrix: collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Additional studies on the biochemical mechanisms of atherosclerosis may provide a fuller understanding of the ways in which lipid-lowering therapy can confer clinical benefit.
    The American Journal of Medicine 03/1998; 104(2A):14S-18S. · 5.30 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from