Patterns of recurrence following complete response to regional chemotherapy for in-transit melanoma.
ABSTRACT Even after complete response (CR) to regional chemotherapy for in-transit melanoma, many patients develop recurrence. Understanding the probability, location, and timing of recurrences can optimize management strategies for this patient population.
A prospective database identified patients who underwent 81 first-time hyperthermic isolated limb perfusions (HILPs) and 133 first-time isolated limb infusions (ILIs). Response was defined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors; recurrence was defined as development of new disease after in-field CR.
HILP exhibited a significantly higher CR rate than ILI (44 vs. 28 %, p = .01). Among 36 HILP-CRs and 37 ILI-CRs, the 3-year recurrence rate was 65 % (95 % confidence interval [95 % CI]: 43-79 %) and 85 % (95 % CI: 63-94%), respectively. Median time to first recurrence was longer for HILP-CR than ILI-CR (23 vs. 8 months, p = .02). There was no statistically significant difference in median time to in-field recurrence between HILP-CR and ILI-CR (46 vs. 25 months, p = .15), but HILP-CR showed a longer median time to out-of-field recurrence (42 vs. 14 months, p = .02). Finally, the overall survival (OS) difference between HILP-CR and ILI-CR (3-year survival: 77 vs. 54 %) did not achieve statistical significance (p = .10).
In the largest series comparing patterns of recurrence, we demonstrate that out-of-field recurrence after CR to HILP occurs later than after CR to ILI, though control of in-field disease remains similar. There remains no statistically significant difference in overall survival after CR to the 2 procedures.
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ABSTRACT: Anticancer cytotoxic agents go through a process by which their antitumor activity-on the basis of the amount of tumor shrinkage they could generate-has been investigated. In the late 1970s, the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization introduced specific criteria for the codification of tumor response evaluation. In 1994, several organizations involved in clinical research combined forces to tackle the review of these criteria on the basis of the experience and knowledge acquired since then. After several years of intensive discussions, a new set of guidelines is ready that will supersede the former criteria. In parallel to this initiative, one of the participating groups developed a model by which response rates could be derived from unidimensional measurement of tumor lesions instead of the usual bidimensional approach. This new concept has been largely validated by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Group and integrated into the present guidelines. This special article also provides some philosophic background to clarify the various purposes of response evaluation. It proposes a model by which a combined assessment of all existing lesions, characterized by target lesions (to be measured) and nontarget lesions, is used to extrapolate an overall response to treatment. Methods of assessing tumor lesions are better codified, briefly within the guidelines and in more detail in Appendix I. All other aspects of response evaluation have been discussed, reviewed, and amended whenever appropriate.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2000; 92(3):205-16. · 14.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isolated limb infusion with melphalan is a well-tolerated treatment for patients with in-transit extremity melanoma with an approximately 30% complete response (CR) rate. ADH-1 is a cyclic pentapeptide that disrupts N-cadherin adhesion complexes and when given systemically in a preclinical model of regional melphalan therapy demonstrated synergistic antitumor activity. A phase 1 dose escalation study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of systemic ADH-1 in combination with melphalan via isolated limb infusion in patients with in-transit extremity melanoma was performed. Dose escalation cohorts of 3 patients each received 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg (10 patients) of ADH-1 administered intravenously on Days 1 and 8 with standard dose melphalan via isolated limb infusion on Day 1. N-cadherin immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed on pretreatment tumor. Response was defined at 3 months using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Sixteen patients have been treated with no observed dose-limiting toxicities. Common treatment-related grade 1 or 2 toxicities included skin/dermatologic (n=14) and pain (n=12). Grade 3 toxicities included shortness of breath (n=1), hypertension (n=1), serologic toxicities (n=4), and 1 grade 4 creatine phosphokinase elevation. In-field responses included 8 CRs, 2 partial responses, 1 stable disease, and 5 progressive diseases. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated increasing ADH-1 concentrations at each dose and minimal variability in melphalan drug levels. Systemic ADH-1 at a dose of 4000 mg on Days 1 and 8 in combination with melphalan via isolated limb infusion is a well-tolerated, novel targeted therapy approach to regionally advanced melanoma. The number of CRs exceeded expectations, suggesting that targeting N-cadherin may be a new strategy for overcoming melanoma chemoresistance.Cancer 08/2009; 115(20):4766-74. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a minimally invasive technique for delivering regional chemotherapy in patients with advanced and metastatic melanoma confined to a limb. It is essentially a low-flow isolated limb perfusion (ILP) performed via percutaneous catheters without oxygenation. From our prospective database 185 patients with advanced metastatic melanoma of the limb treated with a single ILI between 1993 and 2007 were identified. In all patients a cytotoxic drug combination of melphalan and actinomycin-D was used. Drug circulation time was 20-30 min under mild hyperthermic conditions (38-39 degrees C). The majority of patients (62%) were female. Their average age was 74 years (range 29-93 years). Most patients had MD Anderson stage III disease (134/185). The overall response rate was 84% [complete response (CR) rate 38%, partial response rate 46%]. Median response duration was 13 months (22 months for patients with CR; P = 0.01). Median follow-up was 20 months and median survival was 38 months. In those patients with a CR, the median survival was 53 months (P = 0.005). CR rate and survival time decreased with increasing stage of disease. On multivariate analysis significant factors for a favorable outcome were achievement of CR, stage of disease, thickness of primary melanoma, the CO(2 )level in the isolated circuit, and a Wieberdink limb toxicity score of III (considerable erythema and edema). The response rates and duration of response after ILI are comparable to those achieved by conventional ILP. ILI is a minimally invasive alternative to the much more complex and morbid conventional ILP technique for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma confined to a limb.Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2008; 15(11):3003-13. · 4.12 Impact Factor