Ezrin and BCAR1/p130Cas mediate breast cancer growth as 3-D spheroids
ABSTRACT CAS proteins and Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin (ERM) family members act as intracellular scaffolds and are involved in interactions with the cytoskeleton, respectively. Both protein families have previously been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in cancer. Our group recently reported on the overexpression of EZR/VIL2 and BCAR1 and their protein products in breast carcinoma effusions compared to primary breast carcinoma. In the present study, the role of these two proteins was studied in semi-normal MCF10A cells and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells cultured in tri-dimensional (3-D) conditions that were hypothesized to reproduce the in vivo conditions of breast cancer metastasis. MCF10A cells formed spheroid-shaped colonies without any Matrigel invasion, while MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an invasive phenotype and showed satellite projections that bridged multiple cell colonies in 3-D culture. E-cadherin was expressed in MCF10A, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. The temporal expression of ezrin and BCAR1/p130Cas at the mRNA and protein level differed in the two cell lines upon 3-D culturing on Matrigel. Upregulation of BCAR1/p130cas was observed in the transition of MDA-MB-231 from attached to detached culture. Silencing of Ezrin and p130Cas in MDA-MB-231 cells by short hairpin RNA resulted in decreased invasive potential, and p130Cas silencing further resulted in smaller spheroid/colony formation. Our data show that MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells differ in their ability to form spheroids, in expression of E-cadherin and in the expression of Ezrin and BCAR1/p130Cas in 3-D cultures on Matrigel, suggesting a role in tumor progression in breast carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: The basement membrane is an important extracellular matrix that is found in all epithelial and endothelial tissues. It maintains tissue integrity, serves as a barrier to cells and to molecules, separates different tissue types, transduces mechanical signals, and has many biological functions that help to maintain tissue specificity. A well-defined soluble basement membrane extract, termed BME/Matrigel, prepared from an epithelial tumor is similar in content to authentic basement membrane, and forms a hydrogel at 24-37°C. It is used in vitro as a substrate for 3D cell culture, in suspension for spheroid culture, and for various assays, such as angiogenesis, invasion, and dormancy. In vivo, BME/Matrigel is used for angiogenesis assays and to promote xenograft and patient-derived biopsy take and growth. Studies have shown that both the stiffness of the BME/Matrigel as well as its components (i.e. chemical signals) are responsible for its activity with so many different cell types. BME/Matrigel has widespread use in assays and in models that improve our understanding of tumor biology and help define therapeutic approaches.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 07/2014; 79-80. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2014.06.005 · 12.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ashwagandha is an important herb used in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. Alcoholic extract (i-Extract) from its leaves and its component, Withanone, were previously shown to possess anticancer activity. In the present study, we developed a combination of Withanone and Withaferin A, major withanolides in the i-Extract, that retained the selective cancer cell killing activity, and found that it also has significant anti-migration, -invasion and -angiogenic activities, both in in vitro and in vivo assays. Using bioinformatics and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these phytochemicals caused downregulation of migration-promoting proteins: hnRNP-K, VEGF and metalloproteases, and hence are candidate natural drugs for metastatic cancer therapy.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 09/2014; DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0324 · 6.11 Impact Factor
Article: ERM proteins in cancer progression[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Members of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins are involved in multiple aspects of cell migration by acting both as crosslinkers between the membrane, receptors and the actin cytoskeleton, and as regulators of signalling molecules that are implicated in cell adhesion, cell polarity and migration. Increasing evidence suggests that the regulation of cell signalling and the cytoskeleton by ERM proteins is crucial during cancer progression. Thus, both their expression levels and subcellular localisation would affect tumour progression. High expression of ERM proteins has been shown in a variety of cancers. Mislocalisation of ERM proteins reduces the ability of cells to form cell-cell contacts and, therefore, promotes an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mislocalisation of ERM proteins impairs the formation of receptor complexes and alters the transmission of signals in response to growth factors, thereby facilitating tumour progression. In this Commentary, we address the structure, function and regulation of ERM proteins under normal physiological conditions as well as in cancer progression, with particular emphasis on cancers of epithelial origin, such as those from breast, lung and prostate. We also discuss any recent developments that have added to the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways these proteins are involved in during cancer progression.Journal of Cell Science 01/2014; 127(Pt 2):267-75. DOI:10.1242/jcs.133108 · 5.33 Impact Factor