Caffeine Gum and Cycling Performance: A Timing Study.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to determine the most efficacious time to administer caffeine (CAF) in chewing gum to enhance cycling performance. Eight male cyclists participated in 5 separate laboratory sessions. During the first visit, subjects underwent a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). During the next 4 visits, three pieces of chewing gum were administered at three time points (120 min pre-cycling, 60 min pre-cycling, and 5 min pre-cycling). In three of the four visits, at one of the time points mentioned previously, 300 mg of CAF was administered. During the fourth visit, placebo gum was administered at all 3 time points. The experimental trials were defined as follows: Trial A (-120), Trial B (-60), Trial C (-5), and Trial D (Placebo). Following baseline measurements, time allotted for gum administration, and a standard warm-up, participants cycled at 75% VO2max for 15 min then completed a 7 kj·kg cycling time trial. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Cycling performance was improved in Trial C (-5), but not in Trial A (-120) or Trial B (-60), relative to Trial D (Placebo). Caffeine administered in chewing gum enhanced cycling performance when administered immediately prior, but not when administered 1 or 2 hr prior to cycling.
SourceAvailable from: Jonathan SinclairJournal of Comparative Physiology 01/2014; DOI:10.3920/CEP140015 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2014; 33(10):1-8. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.984752 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (<3 mg/kg body mass, ~200 mg) are also ergogenic in some exercise and sport situations, although this has been less well studied. Lower caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.Sports Medicine 11/2014; 44 Suppl 2:175-84. DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8 · 5.32 Impact Factor