The Chicago criteria for esophageal motility disorders: what has changed in the past 5 years?
ABSTRACT The Chicago Classification for esophageal motility disorders was developed to complement the enhanced characterization of esophageal motility provided by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT) as this new technology has emerged within clinical practice. This review aims to summarize the evidence supporting the evolution of the classification scheme since its inception.
Studies examining the specific esophageal motility disorders in regards to HREPT metrics, clinical characteristics, and responses to treatments have facilitated updates of the diagnostic scheme and criteria. These studies have demonstrated variation in treatment responses associated with subclassification of achalasia, the use of distal latency in the diagnosis of distal esophageal spasm, and the development of diagnoses including esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction and hypercontractile esophagus.
The diagnostic criteria described in the Chicago Classification have evolved to demonstrate a greater focus on distinct clinical phenotypes. Future evaluation of the natural history and treatment outcomes will assist in further refinement of this diagnostic scheme and management of esophageal motility disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Background Relaxation of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is now evaluated calculating 4-second integrated relaxation pressure (4-s IRP) by high resolution manometry (HREPT). Solid-state catheters have been used to define abnormal values. Our aim was to evaluate 4-s IRP in esophageal achalasia using HREPT with perfused catheters.Methods From June 2009 to June 2013, 936 HREPT studies have been performed in our unit. Of these, 194 patients having treated achalasia were excluded. Control group was constituted by 695 patients without achalasia, and 47 patients with untreated achalasia constituted the study group. HREPT was performed with water-perfused catheters. To establish the cut-off value for 4-s IRP that better discriminate patients with achalasia from all other patients, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed.Key ResultsTwenty three of 47 achalasia patients (49%) showed a 4-s IRP under 15 mmHg; and seven (15%) had a value under modified Chicago criteria. A cut-off value for 4-s IRP of 6.5 mmHg, calculated by ROC analysis, highly discriminates achalasia from the rest of the patients and especially from scleroderma patients (area under the curve: 0.997, 95% CI: 0.995–1.000; p < 0.001).Conclusions & InferencesCut-off values for 4-s IRP defined using HREPT with solid-state catheters are not adequate for diagnosing esophageal achalasia with water-perfused systems. A lower value, i.e., 6.5 mmHg, is suggested for this equipment. The diagnostic criteria of esophageal achalasia should be modified for HREPT performed with water-perfused systems.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 08/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last year, significant steps have been made toward understanding the pathogenesis of esophageal diseases and translating this knowledge to clinical practice. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common outpatient diagnosis in gastroenterology and has a high prevalence in the general population. As many as 40% of patients with GERD have incomplete response to medical therapy, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying lack of response are now better understood. Novel medical and minimally invasive interventions are available to optimize management of GERD. Esophageal cancer, regardless of the histological subtype, has among the worst survival statistics among all malignancies. Taking advantage of technological advances in genome sequencing, the mutational spectra in esophageal cancer are now emerging, offering novel avenues for targeted therapies. Early diagnosis is another strand for improving survival. While genome-wide association studies are providing insights into genetic susceptibility, novel approaches to early detection of cancer are being devised through the use of biomarkers applied to esophageal samples and as part of imaging technologies. Dysmotility and eosinophilic esophagitis are the differential diagnoses in patients with dysphagia. New pathophysiological classifications have improved the management of motility disorders. Meanwhile, exciting progress has been made in the endoscopic management of these conditions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is still a relatively new entity, and the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. However, it is now clear that an allergic reaction to food plays an important role, and dietary interventions as well as biologic agents to block the inflammatory cascade are novel, promising fields of clinical research.F1000prime reports. 01/2013; 5:44.
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ABSTRACT: Achalasia is classified into 3 types according to the Chicago classification. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and treatment outcomes of 3 achalasia subtypes in Korean patients. Fifty-five patients diagnosed with achalasia based on conventional or high-resolution esophageal manometry were consecutively enrolled. Their clinical characteristics, manometric, endoscopic and esophagographic findings and treatment responses were analyzed among the 3 subtypes of achalasia. Of 55 patients, 21 (38.2%) patients had type I, 28 (50.9%) patients had type II and 6 (10.9%) patients had type III. The median follow-up period was 22.4 (interquartile range, 3.6-67.4) months. Type III patients were older than type I and II patients (70.0 vs. 46.2 and 47.6 years, P = 0.023). The width of the esophagus in type I patients was wider with more frequent bird's beak appearance on esophagogram than the other 2 types (P = 0.010 and 0.006, respectively). Of the 50 patients who received the evaluation for treatment response at 3 months, 7 patients (36.8% vs. 26.9%) were treated with pneumatic dilatation and 4 patients (21.1% vs. 15.4%) with laparoscopic Heller's myotomy in type I and II groups, respectively. The treatment responses of pneumatic dilatation and Heller's myotomy in type I group were 71.4 and 50.0% and in type II were 85.7 and 75.0%, respectively, and all 5 patients in type III group showed good response to medical therapy. Clinical characteristics of 3 achalasia subtypes in Korean patients are consistent with other studies. Treatment outcomes are variable among 3 subtypes.Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 10/2013; 19(4):485-94.