Pre-vaccination immunity and immune responses to a cell culture-derived whole-virus H1N1 vaccine are similar to a seasonal influenza vaccine
ABSTRACT Immune responses to novel pandemic influenza vaccines may be influenced by previous exposure to antigenically similar seasonal strains.
An open-label, randomized, phase I/II study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated whole-virus H1N1 A/California/07/2009 vaccine. 408 subjects were stratified by age (18-59 and >60 years) and randomized 1:1 to receive two vaccinations with either 3.75 or 7.5 μg hemagglutinin antigen 21 days apart. Safety, immunogenicity and the influence of seasonal influenza vaccination and antibody cross-reactivity with a seasonal H1N1 strain was assessed.
A single vaccination with either dose induced substantial increases in H1N1 A/California/07/2009 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing (MN) antibody titers in both adult and elderly subjects. A single 7.5 μg dose induced seroprotection rates of 86.9% in adults and 75.2% in elderly subjects. Two 7.5 μg vaccinations induced seroprotection rates in adult and elderly subjects of 90.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The robust immune response to vaccination was confirmed by analyses of neutralizing antibody titers. Both HI and MN antibodies persisted for ≥ 6 months post-vaccination. Between 34% and 49% of subjects had seroprotective levels of H1N1 A/California/07/2009 antibodies at baseline. Higher baseline HI titers were associated with receipt of the 2008-09 or 2009-10 seasonal influenza vaccine. High baseline A/California/07/2009 neutralizing antibody titers were also associated with high baseline titers against A/New Caledonia/20/99, a seasonal H1N1 strain which circulated and was included in the seasonal vaccine from 2000-01 to 2006-07. Pre-adsorption with A/H1N1/New Caledonia/20/99 antigen reduced A/H1N1/California/07/2009 baseline titers in 55% of tested sera. The vaccine was well tolerated with low rates of fever.
A whole-virus H1N1 A/California/07/2009 vaccine was safe and well tolerated and a single dose induced substantial immune responses similar to seasonal influenza vaccines, probably due to immunological priming by previous seasonal influenza vaccines or infections.
- SourceAvailable from: David Furman
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- "This could be due to the limitations of the assay that ( 1 ) does not detect conformational epitopes and ( 2 ) does not allow for the identification of antibodies that depend on glycosylation for binding . Several previous studies have compared the pre - GMT ( baseline titers ) with influenza in elderly versus young individuals with no general consensus ( Clark et al , 2009 ; Vajo et al , 2010 ; Chen et al , 2011 ; Ehrlich et al , 2012 ) . These discrepancies have been examined in detail by Sasaki et al ( 2011 ) who used plasmablast - derived poly - clonal antibodies and found greater influenza - specific broad reactivity of antibodies from older versus young vaccine recipients . "
ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of the immune system in many diseases, there are currently no objective benchmarks of immunological health. In an effort to identifying such markers, we used influenza vaccination in 30 young (20-30 years) and 59 older subjects (60 to >89 years) as models for strong and weak immune responses, respectively, and assayed their serological responses to influenza strains as well as a wide variety of other parameters, including gene expression, antibodies to hemagglutinin peptides, serum cytokines, cell subset phenotypes and in vitro cytokine stimulation. Using machine learning, we identified nine variables that predict the antibody response with 84% accuracy. Two of these variables are involved in apoptosis, which positively associated with the response to vaccination and was confirmed to be a contributor to vaccine responsiveness in mice. The identification of these biomarkers provides new insights into what immune features may be most important for immune health.Molecular Systems Biology 07/2013; 9(1):659. DOI:10.1038/msb.2013.15 · 10.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This phase 1/2 open-label, randomized clinical study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a non-adjuvanted, whole virus, Vero cell-derived H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine (A/H1N1/California/07/2009) in children and adolescents (6 months to 17 years). Subjects were stratified by age (6-11 months, 12-35 months, 3-8 years, 9-17 years) to receive two vaccinations 21 days apart of either the 3.75 μg or 7.5 μg dose. A booster with a licensed trivalent seasonal (2010/2011) influenza vaccine was administered one year after the first vaccination to a subgroup that had previously received the 7.5 μg dose. A single vaccination with the 7.5 μg dose induced high seroprotection rates in all subjects, namely: 88.0% (9-17 years); 68.0% (3-8 years); 42.9% (12-35 months); and 50.0% (6-11 months). Following a second vaccination, seroprotection rates ranged from 84.2% to 100%. GMTs after two vaccinations with the 7.5 μg dose (as determined by HI) were also substantial: reaching 210.0 (9-17 years), 196.2 (3-8 years), 118.9 (12-35 months) and 99.6 (6-11 months). Antibody persistence was demonstrated at 6 months (GMTs ranging from 65.6 to 212.8 with the 7.5 μg dose) and at 12 months (GMTs ranging from 33.6 to 124.1 with the 7.5 μg dose) after primary vaccination. The booster vaccination induced a strong response to the A/California/07/2009 strain, reaching 100% seroprotection in all age groups, with GMTs ranging from 640.0 to 886.3. The vaccine was well tolerated, inducing low adverse reaction rates (overall fever rate: 6% after the first vaccination; 7% after the second vaccination), even in young children. These data confirm that the H1N1 whole-virus Vero cell-derived pandemic influenza vaccine is suitable for use in children and adolescents; a 2-dose primary vaccination induces a memory response in a naïve population that can be effectively boosted with the A/H1N1/California/07/2009 component of a seasonal influenza vaccine. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00976469.Vaccine 07/2012; 30(41):5956-66. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.039 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several subtypes of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential are endemic in bird populations throughout Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and evidence suggests that these viruses are adapting to the mammalian host. As emphasized by the high mortality rate of humans infected with H5N1 viruses, this situation presents a substantial risk to global human health. The Vero cell culture platform has been used to develop whole-virus influenza vaccines that provide broad cross-clade protection against viruses with pandemic potential, at low antigen doses, without the requirement for adjuvantation. The safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines has been demonstrated in studies with more than 10,000 individuals, including healthy adult and elderly subjects, children and various risk groups. These Vero cell-derived vaccines are licensed for prepandemic and pandemic use. The Vero platform is also being explored to develop next-generation live-attenuated and recombinant vaccines.Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2013; 12(4):395-413. DOI:10.1586/erv.13.21 · 4.21 Impact Factor