Association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 with poor prognosis in elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
ABSTRACT In population studies, the relative survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) decreases with age. In this study, we demonstrated in a cohort of 189 patients from a CLL clinic that overall survival was lower in the sub-cohort of patients aged ≥ 70 years, but causes of death were similar for all age groups, being progressive CLL, secondary malignancies and infections. As normal individuals age, the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, can increase. In our patients with CLL, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels increased with age to a greater degree than in normal individuals, and the levels correlated closely with plasma β(2)-microglobulin and with one another. In addition, in patients ≥ 70 years, IL-6 was found to be a better prognostic marker than immunoglobulin variable heavy chain gene (IgV(H)) status. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-6 and IL-8 could enhance the binding of CLL cells to stromal cells, suggesting that their clinical activity may be mediated through their effects on the microenvironment. Thus, plasma IL-6 is an important prognostic marker for the elderly with CLL, and this study highlights that the utility of prognostic markers may depend on patient age.
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ABSTRACT: Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) provide important survival and drug resistance signals to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, but current models to analyze CLL-MSC interactions are heterogeneous. Therefore, we tested different human and murine MSC lines and primary human MSCs for their ability to protect CLL cells from spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis. Our results show that both human and murine MSCs are equally effective in protecting CLL cells from fludarabine-induced apoptosis. This protective effect was sustained over a wide range of CLL-MSC ratios (5:1 to 100:1), and the levels of protection were reproducible in 4 different laboratories. Human and murine MSCs also protected CLL cells from dexamethasone- and cyclophosphamide-induced apoptosis. This protection required cell-cell contact and was virtually absent when CLL cells were separated from the MSCs by micropore filters. Furthermore, MSCs maintained Mcl-1 and protected CLL cells from spontaneous and fludarabine-induced Mcl-1 and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these studies define common denominators for CLL cocultures with MSCs. They also provide a reliable, validated tool for future investigations into the mechanism of MSC-CLL cross talk and for drug testing in a more relevant fashion than the commonly used suspension cultures.Blood 09/2009; 114(20):4441-50. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several cytokines have been suggested to play a regulatory action on the neoplastic clone of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) by interfering in the differentiation, proliferation, or death/survival pathways. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant protein constitutively expressed at the mRNA level and released by B-CLL cells. In view of the presence of the IL-8 receptor mRNA and of specific IL-8 binding, confirmed also by Scatchard analysis using 125I-IL-8, the study was extended to evaluate the possible regulatory role of this cytokine on B-CLL cells. IL-8 failed to show any in vitro proliferative effect on leukemic B-CLL cells. By contrast, the propidium iodide (PI) staining of the DNA content showed that IL-8 could prolong the survival of resting B-CLL cells in 11 of 16 cases studied. In the remaining 5 cases, 90.6% +/- 4.39% SD of the cells after culture remained viable and IL-8 could exert a significant death protection action after pretreatment with 10(-4) mol/L hydrocortisone, which reduced the percentage of viable B-CLL cells. The dose range of IL-8 capable of inducing the prolonging survival effect is comparable with the levels of IL-8 released constitutively by B-CLL cells, indicating that the death protection action is exerted at physiologic doses. The in vitro rescue from death induced by IL-8 is reflected by an increased expression of bcl-2 mRNA in B-CLL cases incubated in the presence of IL-8. These findings were further confirmed at the protein level, because in B-CLL cells that displayed a bimodal bcl-2 intracytoplasmatic protein expression IL-8 was capable of upmodulating the bcl-2high expression peak. The potential autocrine regulatory action exerted by IL-8 is supported by the evidence that exogenous IL-8 can upregulate IL-8 mRNA in B-CLL cells. These results, together with the demonstration that antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous IL-8 could induce a significant in vitro reduction in the number of living cells, further support the hypothesis that, in B-CLL, the physiologic doses of IL-8 released constitutively by the leukemic clone may play an autocrine role in the process of cell accumulation characteristic of this disease.Blood 06/1996; 87(10):4382-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ageing is associated with low-grade inflammation and markers such as IL-6 possess prognostic value. Tumour necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) initiates the inflammatory cascade and has been linked to several age-associated disorders. It remains, however, unknown if TNF-alpha is associated with mortality in old populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if serum levels of TNF-alpha were associated with all-cause mortality independently of interleukin (IL)-6 in a prospective study of 333 relatively healthy 80-year-old people. A Cox regression model was used to explore effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on survival in the following 6 years. A total of 133 participants died during this follow-up period. TNF-alpha was associated with mortality in men, but not in women, whereas low-grade elevations in IL-6 were associated strongly with mortality in both sexes. TNF-alpha explained only 7% of the variability in IL-6 and effects of the two cytokines were independent of each other as well as of other traditional risk factors for death [smoking, blood pressure, physical exercise, total cholesterol, co-morbidity, body mass index (BMI) and intake of anti-inflammatory drugs]. These findings indicate that at least in old populations chronic elevated levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 have different biological functions that trigger age-associated pathology and cause mortality.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 05/2003; 132(1):24-31. · 3.41 Impact Factor