Smith, P.D. et al. Isolation and purification of CD14-negative mucosal macrophages from normal human small intestine. J. Immunol. Methods 202, 1-11
ABSTRACT Mucosal macrophages play a fundamental role in the regulation of immunological events and inflammation in the small intestine. Because no information is available on normal small intestinal macrophages, we developed a technique for the isolation and purification of jejunal lamina propria macrophages in order to study their phenotype and activity. From sections of normal human jejunum, lamina propria mononuclear cells were isolated by neutral protease digestion and then subjected to counterflow centrifugal elutriation to purify the macrophages. The cells isolated by this procedure contained <1% CD3+ lymphocytes and displayed the size distribution, morphological features, ultrastructure and phagocytic activity of mononuclear phagocytes. In contrast to blood monocytes, however, mucosal macrophages from the jejunum did not exhibit adherence properties or express CD14, a receptor for the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. The purification of large numbers of lamina propria macrophages by this procedure offers the opportunity to define the role of this cell in the physiological inflammation characteristic of normal intestinal mucosa and the pathological inflammation associated with small intestinal diseases.
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- "Exiting cells in the buffer solution are then collected outside of the centrifuge. This procedure is widely used for the enrichment of haematopoietic stem cells (De Witte et al., 1983; Schwartz et al., 1986; Jones et al., 1990; Orlic et al., 1994), macrophages or monocytes (Smith et al., 1997; Zetterlund et al., 1998) and for cell cycle synchronization of cell populations (Merrill, 1998). Here we demonstrate that it also represents an excellent technique to obtain large quantities of highly enriched IEL subsets from both mouse, and human intestinal tissue samples, most notably with only negligible losses of lymphoid cells during the isolation procedure. "
ABSTRACT: Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are specialized subsets of T cells with distinct functional capacities. While some IEL subsets are circulating, others such as CD8alphaalpha TCRalphabeta IEL are believed to represent non-circulating resident T cell subsets [Sim, G.K., Intraepithelial lymphocytes and the immune system. Adv. Immunol., 1995. 58: 297-343.]. Current methods to obtain enriched preparations of intraepithelial lymphocytes are mostly based on Percoll density gradient or magnetic bead-based technologies [Lundqvist, C., et al., Isolation of functionally active intraepithelial lymphocytes and enterocytes from human small and large intestine. J. Immunol. Methods, 1992. 152(2): 253-263.]. However, these techniques are hampered by a generally low yield of isolated cells, and potential artifacts due to the interference of the isolation procedure with subsequent functional assays, in particular, when antibodies against cell surface markers are required. Here we describe a new method for obtaining relatively pure populations of intestinal IEL (55-75%) at a high yield (>85%) by elutriation centrifugation. This technique is equally suited for the isolation and enrichment of intraepithelial lymphocytes of both mouse and human origin. Time requirements for fractionating cell suspensions by elutriation centrifugation are comparable to Percoll-, or MACS-based isolation procedures. Hence, the substantially higher yield and the consistent robust enrichment for intraepithelial lymphocytes, together with the gentle treatment of the cells during elutriation that does not interfere with subsequent functional assays, are important aspects that are in favor of using this elegant technology to obtain unmanipulated, unbiased populations of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, and, if desired, also of pure epithelial cells.Journal of immunological methods 03/2009; 344(1):26-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2009.02.006 · 2.01 Impact Factor
Article: ImmunologyBMJ Clinical Research 12/1970; DOI:10.1136/bmj.4.5735.611-b · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helicobacter is a common intestinal pathogen of most laboratory mice from both commercial and academic sources worldwide. Not previously thought to have an effect, recent evidence indicates Helicobacter infection alters cytokine, chemokine, and gene expression in the stomach, intestine, and colon. Though the in vivo cell types responsible for these changes are currently unknown, in vitro results suggest macrophages are the likely source. In addition to detection and elimination of pathogens, intestinal macrophages play a role in maintaining homeostasis. By altering gene expression and cytokine production in the microenvironment, we hypothesized that Helicobacter infection altered the phenotype and inflammatory response of submucosal intestinal macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we examined macrophages within whole mounts of intestinal muscle as well as isolated macrophages from Helicobacter-infected or uninfected mouse intestine. Macrophages from the intestinal muscle of Helicobacter-infected mice showed increased expression of F4/80 and CD11b, altered gene expression, and increased phagocytosis when compared to macrophages from uninfected mice. Infection also altered the macrophage response to stimuli. Macrophages from infected mice produced significantly lower concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, and PGE[subscript]2 in response to stimulation with either IFN and LPS or IL-4 and IC. These data support our hypothesis demonstrating that the intestinal muscle macrophage phenotype, function, and response to stimulation are altered by Helicobacter infection both in vivo and in vitro. National Institute of Health; Institutional Development Award Program of the National Center for Research Resources; American Heart Association; Terry C. Johnson Center for Cancer Research; Kansas State University Division of Biology Master of Science Masters Department of Biology Sherry D. Fleming