Isolation and purification of CD14-negative mucosal macrophages from normal human small intestine
ABSTRACT Mucosal macrophages play a fundamental role in the regulation of immunological events and inflammation in the small intestine. Because no information is available on normal small intestinal macrophages, we developed a technique for the isolation and purification of jejunal lamina propria macrophages in order to study their phenotype and activity. From sections of normal human jejunum, lamina propria mononuclear cells were isolated by neutral protease digestion and then subjected to counterflow centrifugal elutriation to purify the macrophages. The cells isolated by this procedure contained <1% CD3+ lymphocytes and displayed the size distribution, morphological features, ultrastructure and phagocytic activity of mononuclear phagocytes. In contrast to blood monocytes, however, mucosal macrophages from the jejunum did not exhibit adherence properties or express CD14, a receptor for the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. The purification of large numbers of lamina propria macrophages by this procedure offers the opportunity to define the role of this cell in the physiological inflammation characteristic of normal intestinal mucosa and the pathological inflammation associated with small intestinal diseases.
SourceAvailable from: Ettje F Tigchelaar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome", could play an important role in immune-related, complex diseases, and growing evidence supports a causal role for gut microbiota in regulating predisposition to diseases. A comprehensive analysis of the human gut microbiome is thus important to unravel the exact mechanisms by which the gut microbiota are involved in health and disease. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, along with the development of metagenomics and bioinformatics tools, have provided opportunities to characterize the microbial communities. Furthermore, studies using germ-free animals have shed light on how the gut microbiota are involved in autoimmunity. In this review we describe the different approaches used to characterize the human microbiome, review current knowledge about the gut microbiome, and discuss the role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Finally, we indicate how this knowledge could be used to improve human health by manipulating the gut microbiota. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Function.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.05.023 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circulating monocytes carrying human CMV (HCMV) migrate into tissues, where they differentiate into HCMV-infected resident macrophages that upon interaction with bacterial products may potentiate tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which HCMV promotes macrophage-orchestrated inflammation using a clinical isolate of HCMV (TR) and macrophages derived from primary human monocytes. HCMV infection of the macrophages, which was associated with viral DNA replication, significantly enhanced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 gene expression and protein production in response to TLR4 ligand (LPS) stimulation compared with mock-infected LPS-stimulated macrophages during a 6-d in vitro infection. HCMV infection also potentiated TLR5 ligand-stimulated cytokine production. To elucidate the mechanism by which HCMV infection potentiated inducible macrophage responses, we show that infection by HCMV promoted the maintenance of surface CD14 and TLR4 and TLR5, which declined over time in mock-infected macrophages, and enhanced both the intracellular expression of adaptor protein MyD88 and the inducible phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB. These findings provide additional information toward elucidating the mechanism by which HCMV potentiates bacteria-induced NF-κB-mediated macrophage inflammatory responses, thereby enhancing organ inflammation in HCMV-infected tissues.
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ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a primary site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, replication and dissemination. After an initial explosive phase of infection, HIV establishes latency. In addition to CD4 T cells, macrophages are readily infected which can persist for long periods of time. Though macrophages at various systemic sites are infected, those present in the GIT constitute a major cellular reservoir due to the abundance of these cells at these mucosal sites. Here we review some of the important findings regarding what is known about the macrophage reservoir in the gut and explore potential approaches being pursued in the field to reduce this reservoir. Developing strategies that can lead to a functional cure will need to incorporate approaches that can eradicate the macrophage reservoir in the GIT.Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 09/2014; 21(11). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00518-14 · 2.37 Impact Factor