Isolation and purification of CD14-negative mucosal macrophages from normal human small intestine
ABSTRACT Mucosal macrophages play a fundamental role in the regulation of immunological events and inflammation in the small intestine. Because no information is available on normal small intestinal macrophages, we developed a technique for the isolation and purification of jejunal lamina propria macrophages in order to study their phenotype and activity. From sections of normal human jejunum, lamina propria mononuclear cells were isolated by neutral protease digestion and then subjected to counterflow centrifugal elutriation to purify the macrophages. The cells isolated by this procedure contained <1% CD3+ lymphocytes and displayed the size distribution, morphological features, ultrastructure and phagocytic activity of mononuclear phagocytes. In contrast to blood monocytes, however, mucosal macrophages from the jejunum did not exhibit adherence properties or express CD14, a receptor for the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. The purification of large numbers of lamina propria macrophages by this procedure offers the opportunity to define the role of this cell in the physiological inflammation characteristic of normal intestinal mucosa and the pathological inflammation associated with small intestinal diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (stroma) regulation of mucosal T-cell function is incompletely understood. In this study, we uncovered a role for intestinal stromal products in the innate regulation of effector T cells. Stroma-conditioned media (S-CM) derived from the normal human intestinal stroma (transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)(hi)/interleukin (IL)-6(lo)/IL-1β(lo)) significantly downregulated T-cell proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production compared with S-CM derived from the inflamed Crohn's mucosa (TGF-β(hi)/IL-6(hi)/IL-1β(hi)). Antibody neutralization studies showed that TGF-β in normal S-CM inhibited T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, whereas IL-6 plus IL-1β in Crohn's S-CM promoted T-cell proliferation, and IL-1β alone promoted IFN-γ and IL-17 release. Importantly, normal S-CM inhibited T-bet expression, whereas Crohn's S-CM activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, suggesting that discordant T-cell responses are regulated at the transcription factor and signaling levels. These findings implicate stromal TGF-β in the downregulation of T-cell 2 responses in the normal intestinal mucosa, and stromal IL-6 and IL-1β in the promotion of Th1 and Th17 responses in the inflamed Crohn's mucosa, suggesting an innate regulatory function for the intestinal extracellular matrix.Mucosal Immunology 01/2011; 4(4):420-7. · 7.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue macrophages are derived exclusively from blood monocytes, which as monocyte-derived macrophages support HIV-1 replication. However, among human tissue macrophages only intestinal macrophages are non-permissive to HIV-1, suggesting that the unique microenvironment in human intestinal mucosa renders lamina propria macrophages non-permissive to HIV-1. We investigated this hypothesis using blood monocytes and intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma)-conditioned media (S-CM) to model the exposure of newly recruited monocytes and resident macrophages to lamina propria stroma, where the cells take up residence in the intestinal mucosa. Exposure of monocytes to S-CM blocked up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in differentiated macrophages. Importantly, exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages simultaneously to S-CM and HIV-1 also inhibited viral replication, and sorted CD4+ intestinal macrophages, a proportion of which expressed CCR5+, did not support HIV-1 replication, indicating that the non-permissiveness to HIV-1 was not due to reduced receptor expression alone. Consistent with this conclusion, S-CM also potently inhibited replication of HIV-1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, which provides CD4/CCR5-independent entry. Neutralization of TGF-β in S-CM and recombinant TGF-β studies showed that stromal TGF-β inhibited macrophage nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HIV-1 replication. Thus, the profound inability of intestinal macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is likely the consequence of microenvironmental down-regulation of macrophage HIV-1 receptor/coreceptor expression and NF-κB activation.PLoS Pathogens 05/2011; 7(5):e1002060. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in initiating the T-helper (Th)1 response to Helicobacter pylori. To further elucidate the mucosal response to H pylori, we examined whether gastric stromal factors condition DCs to support tolerance to H pylori, analogous to intestinal stromal factor-driven macrophage tolerance to commensal bacteria. To model mucosal DC development, we isolated and cultured cell-depleted human stroma/extracellular matrix from fresh gastric and intestinal mucosa to generate stroma-conditioned media. We then analyzed the capacity of stroma-conditioned media-treated monocyte-derived DCs and primary human gastric and intestinal DCs pulsed in vitro with H pylori to induce T-cell proliferation and interferon gamma secretion. Stromal factors in gastric mucosa suppressed H pylori-stimulated DC activation and the ability of DCs to drive a Th1 proliferative and cytokine response to H pylori. The ability of gastric stromal factors to down-regulate DC function was similar to that of intestinal stromal factors and was independent of transforming growth factor β, prostaglandin E₂, interleukin (IL)-10, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Stroma-conditioned media-induced reduction in DC-stimulated Th1 responses was associated with reduced DC release of IL-12. Gastric stromal factors down-regulate DC responsiveness to H pylori, resulting in a dampened gastric Th1 response. We speculate that stroma-induced down-regulation of DC function contributes to the permissiveness of both gastric and intestinal mucosa to colonization by persistent residential microbes.Gastroenterology 06/2011; 141(3):929-38. · 12.82 Impact Factor