Determination of histamine and bacterial isolation in swordfish fillets (Xiphias gladius) implicated in a food borne poisoning
ABSTRACT An incident of food borne poisoning causing illness in 43 victims due to ingestion of swordfish fillets occurred in December, 2004, in Taichung Prefecture, central Taiwan. Eight frozen raw swordfish fillets were collected from the suspected restaurant and analyzed for bacterial content and histamine-related quality. The levels of aerobic plate count, total coliform, and total volatile basic nitrogen in all samples ranged from 5.39 to 6.71 log CFU/g, <3–1360 most probable number (MPN)/g, and 6.44–14.56 mg/100 g, respectively. None of these samples contained Escherichia coli. The suspected swordfish fillets contained 85.9–293.7 mg/100 g of histamine greater than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g set by the US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for tuna fish. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected swordfish fillets, this food borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be due to histamine intoxication. In addition, although ten histamine-producing bacteria strains, capable of producing 12.7–33.0 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine, were identified as Staphylococcus sp. (one strain), S. aureus (two strains) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (seven strains), by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification, they were not determined to be the main contributors to histamine accumulation in suspected swordfish fillets.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum (FI8595), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (IL 1403), and Streptococcus thermophilus on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens was investigated lysine decarboxylase broth. Both of lactic acid bacteria and foodborne pathogens used (especially Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. plantarum) had an ability to convert aminoacids into biogenic amine. The conversion of lysine into cadaverine was the highest (167.11 mg/L) by Lactobacillus spp. Gram-positive bacteria generally had a greater ability to produce cadaverine with corresponding value of 46.26, 53.76, and 154.54 mg/L for Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, respectively. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of lactic acid bacteria strains (P < 0.05). The role of lactic acid bacteria on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine accumulation by Enterobactericeae was increased in the presence of lactic acid bacteria strains except for St. thermophilus, which induced 2-fold lower cadaverine production by S. Paratyphi A. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris induced 10-fold higher increases in histamine for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria resulted in strong increases in cadaverine production by P. aeruginosa, although remarkable decreases were observed for histamine, spermidine, dopamine, agmatine, and TMA in the presence of lactic acid bacteria in lysine decarboxylase broth . The result of the study showed that amine positive lactic acid bacteria strains in fermented food led to significant amine accumulation by contaminant bacteria and their accumulation in food product may be controlled by the use of proper starters with amine-negative activity. Practical Application: Foodborne pathogens and certain lactic acid bacteria are particularly active in the production of biogenic amines. Most of the strains of bacteria possess more than 1 amino acid decarboxylase activity under lysine enrichment culture conditions. Lactic acid bacteria strains had a significant role on increase putrescine accumulation by foodborne pathogens. The increased production of biogenic amines in mixed culture is the result of presence of amine positive lactic acid bacteria strains. The addition of a proper selected starter culture with amine-negative activity is advisable to produce safer fermented food with low contents of biogenic amines.Journal of Food Science 07/2012; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2012; 3:188. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body temperature as heat load index increased, regardless of treatment. These data suggest that cattle, when given the opportunity, will make considerable use of a shower to reduce heat load, but that individuals are highly variable in their use of this resource. The variability between cows indicates that the behavioral response to water is likely an important, but poorly understood, consideration in the design of sprinkler systems used for summer cooling.Journal of Dairy Science 07/2011; 94(7):3376-86. · 2.57 Impact Factor