Chapter 1 Definitions, strategies and principles for bioindication/biomonitoring of the environment

Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment DOI: 10.1016/S0927-5215(03)80131-5

ABSTRACT In the context of environmental monitoring studies bioindicators reflect organisms (or parts of organisms or communities of organisms) that contain information on quality of the environment (or a part of the environment). Biomonitors, on the other hand, are organisms (or parts of organisms or communities of organisms) that contain informations on the quantitative aspects of quality of the environment. When data and information obtained by bioindication are moved up to the level of knowledge the subjectivity of interpretation increases with the complexity and dynamics of a system (“staircase of knowing”).In this article clearcut definitions are attempted for most terms used in environmental monitoring studies. From there a comparison of instrumental measurements with the use of bioindicators/biomonitors with respect to harmonisation and quality control will be drawn. Precision, accuracy, calibration and harmonisation in between national standards and international routines seem to be the leading goals in quality studies of international working groups dealing with biomonitoring throughout the world. Common strategies and concepts will fill the gap in between single source results and integrated approaches related either for human health aspects or environmental protection purposes, f.e. via biodiversity monitoring. Here we report on well established monitoring programmes like Environmental Specimen Banking (ESB) or newly developed strategies as the Multi-Markered Bioindication Concept (MMBC) with its functional and integrated windows of prophylactic health care.

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    ABSTRACT: The level of heavy metals deposition in Ido-Ekiti, a sub-urban town and Ipere-Ekiti, a rural town was investigated using mosses grown in the localities as possible bio-indicators. The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each town. The samples were digested in an acid and the concentration of five heavy metals; Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) in the samples were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The study reveals distinct variation in metal concentrations across the locations. It was reveals that the heavy metal concentration were mostly higher in moss samples than their corresponding substrates, this suggest that the heavy metals were concentrated in the atmosphere. The highest metal concentrations obtained in Ido-Ekiti than Ipere-Ekiti could be attributed to the higher anthropogenic activities in Ido-Ekiti. In order to minimize and control the high level of these heavy metals in the environment, the use of bio-fuel, closure of heavy industries located near residential areas, emission control legislation, reduction in fossil fuel combustion and significant decrease in leaded petrol combustion should be encouraged. Introduction The increasing trend of environmental pollution of our dear ecosystem is a thing of great concern. Our environment has witnessed contamination from oil spills, used spent lubricating oil, heavy metal and lots more. The plants are the first recipients of the effects of any environmental contamination. Mosses are small non-woody plants that are typically 1-10cm tall, though some species are much larger. They grow close together in clumps or mats in damp or shady locations. They do not have flowers or seeds. They also lack vascular systems. There are approximately 10,000 species of mosses classified in the division bryophyta. The division bryophyta also consists of liverworts and hornworts. Bryophyta have been long considered to be insignificant in the economy of man except for those used in packing, plugging and decoration. Recent progress in environmental pollution studies has changed our understanding of bryophytes as useful plants. Vinay et al., (2007) reported that bryophytes are efficient accumulators of heavy metals due to some properties which includes lacks of true root system which makes them to depend largely on atmospheric deposition for their mineral element requirement, lack of cuticle layer, which makes their tissues to be easily permeable to water, minerals, gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere as well as metal ions, possession of tissues with negatively charged groups which can act as efficient cation exchangers. In addition to these properties, Chakrabortty et al., (2006) reported that bryophytes wide distribution and ease of collection make them to be efficient metal accumulators and bio-monitors. Earlier research works by Kovacs et al. and Rovinsky et al., (1993) have shown that mosses have proved to be better bio-indicators of pollution because they are more sensitive to atmospheric pollution. The usefulness of mosses in determining heavy metal concentrations in different geographical areas has been discussed and demonstrated in several studies (Market et al., 2003).
    08/2012; 5(4):408-421. DOI:10.4314/ejesm.v5i4.10
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Active moss biomonitoring is widely applied in polluted areas for monitoring of airborne particle-bound trace element pollution. This study explored the suitability of the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii for bio-magnetic monitoring in cities. To this end S. girgensohnii moss bags were exposed at three different microenvironments characterized by heavy traffic – street canyons, a city tunnel and parking garages during the summer and autumn of 2011 in the city of Belgrade. The ferro(i)magnetic PM fraction in the moss samples was quantified by Saturated Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) and the mea-sured values were compared with the trace element concentration in the moss samples. SIRM values were significantly different across the considered urban microenvironments. Moreover, a high corre-lation between moss SIRM values and concentrations of Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb was found. These results demonstrate that moss bags can be effectively applied for biomagnetic monitoring of the spatio-temporal distribution of road traffic and vehicles derived pollutants in urban areas.
    Ecological Indicators 05/2015; 52:40-47. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.11.018 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An overview to the results from the application of various spectrometric (atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS; inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry, ICP-AES; and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) and radioanalytical (neutron activation analysis, NAA) techniques in environmental pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia are presented. The results from the surveys of the pollution with heavy metals of soil, air and food are reported. The pollution with heavy metals in the particular regions was additionally investigated using moss, lichens, attic dust, soil, water and sediment samples. The results from the study of the pollution in the cities of Veles (lead and zinc smelter plant), Kavadarci (ferronickel smelter plant), Radoviš (copper mine and flotation), Probištip, Makedonska Kamenica and Kriva Palanka (lead and zinc mines and flotation plants) and Bitola and Kičevo (thermoelectric power plants).


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Jun 2, 2014

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