Purification and characterization of β-agarase from agar-liquefying soil bacterium, Acinetobacter sp., AG LSL-1
ABSTRACT The extracellular β-agarase LSL-1 produced by an agar-liquefying, soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp., AG LSL-1 was purified to homogeneity by combination of ion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography with final yield of 44%. The enzyme has a specific activity of 397 U mg−1 protein and with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The agarase was active in the pH range of 5.0–9.0, optimally at pH 6.0 and temperature between 25 °C and 55 °C and optimal at 40 °C. The enzyme retained 63% of native activity at 50 °C suggesting it is a thermostable. The activity of the agarase was completely inhibited by metal ions, Hg2+, Ag+ and Cu2+, whereas 25–40% of native activity was retained in the presence of Zn2+, Sn2+ and SDS. Neoagarobiose was the final product of hydrolysis of both agarose and neoagarohexaose by the purified agarase LSL-1. Based on the molecular mass and final products of agarose hydrolysis, the β-agarase LSL-1 may be further grouped under group III β-agarases and may be a member of GH-50 family. This is the first report on the purification and biochemical characterization of β-agarase from an agar-liquefying Acinetobacter species.
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ABSTRACT: Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into alpha-agarase (E.C. 18.104.22.168) and beta-agarase (E.C. 22.214.171.124) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as a tool enzyme for biological, physiological, and cytological studies. The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future.Marine Drugs 01/2010; 8(1):200-18. DOI:10.3390/md8010200 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An agar-degrading archaeon Halococcus sp. 197A was isolated from a solar salt sample. The agarase was purified by hydrophobic column chromatography using a column of TOYOPEARL Phenyl-650 M. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme, designated as Aga-HC, was ~55 kDa on both SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography. Aga-HC released degradation products in the order of neoagarohexose, neoagarotetraose and small quantity of neoagarobiose, indicating that Aga-HC was a β-type agarase. Aga-HC showed a salt requirement for both stability and activity, being active from 0.3 M NaCl, with maximal activity at 3.5 M NaCl. KCl supported similar activities as NaCl up to 3.5 M, and LiCl up to 2.5 M. These monovalent salts could not be substituted by 3.5 M divalent cations, CaCl2 or MgCl2. The optimal pH was 6.0. Aga-HC was thermophilic, with optimum temperature of 70 °C. Aga-HC retained approximately 90 % of the initial activity after incubation for 1 hour at 65-80 °C, and retained 50 % activity after 1 hour at 95 °C. In the presence of additional 10 mM CaCl2, approximately 17 % remaining activity was detected after 30 min at 100 °C. This is the first report on agarase purified from Archaea.Extremophiles 08/2013; 17(6). DOI:10.1007/s00792-013-0575-z · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome sequencing of Catenovulum agarivorans YM01T reveals 15 open-reading frames (ORFs) encoding various agarases. In this study, extracellular proteins of YM01T were precipitated by ammonium sulfate and separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results of in-gel agarase activity assay and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the protein, YM01-3, was an agarase with the most evident agarolytic activity. Agarase YM01-3, encoded by the YM01-3 gene, consisted of 420 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46.9 kDa and contained a glycoside hydrolase family 16 β-agarase module followed by a RICIN superfamily in the C-terminal region. The YM01-3 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant agarase, YM01-3, showed optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C and had a Km of 3.78 mg mL-1 for agarose and a Vmax of 1.14 × 104 U mg-1. YM01-3 hydrolyzed the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the main products. Notably, YM01-3 was stable below 50 °C and retained 13% activity after incubation at 80 °C for 1 h, characteristics much different from other agarases. The present study highlights a thermostable agarase with great potential application value in industrial production.Marine Drugs 05/2014; 12(5):2731-47. DOI:10.3390/md12052731 · 3.51 Impact Factor