Fusion Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 1607–1613
Multi-solid multi-channel Mithrandir (M3) code for
thermal–hydraulic modelling of ITER
L. Savoldi Richard, M. Bagnasco, R. Zanino∗
Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico, C.so Duca degli abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Received 31 July 2006; accepted 19 April 2007
Available online 11 June 2007
Experimental Reactor (ITER) Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC). The model discretizes the cross section of an ITER CICC
into M current carrying cable elements (e.g., the six last-but-one cabling stages—the petals), coupled with N hydraulic channels
(e.g., the six petals+the central channel) and K non-current carrying solid components (e.g., the jacket of the CICC), with M, N
and K arbitrary integers. Along each of the M+K solid components a 1D transient heat conduction equation is solved, whereas
along each of the N channels three Euler-like 1D equations, derived from the conservation laws for compressible He flow, are
solved. The resulting quasi 3D model, in which 1D equations are coupled by heat and mass transfer between the different CICC
components, is implemented in the M3code and validated against experimental results from the ITER Good Joint sample and
the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert Full Size Joint Sample. The new code is able to reproduce with good accuracy the
measured temperature gradients on the CICC cross section, provided sufficiently accurate input data are available.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: ITER; CICC; Thermal–hydraulic transients
The superconducting magnets of the International
Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be
wound using Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC).
Because of the multi-stage and multi-channel structure
∗Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 011 564 4490.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (R. Zanino).
of the ITER CICC, the analysis of thermal–hydraulic
transients requires sophisticated computational tools.
Most of the present validated codes, like Mithrandir
section a uniform temperature for the superconducting
strands and a uniform (typically different) temperature
for the helium in the annular (cable) region. However,
TAN facility at Villigen PSI, Switzerland, have shown
0920-3796/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
L.S. Richard et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 1607–1613
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