Angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulates ERK1 and ERK2 in quiescent but inhibits ERK in NGF-stimulated PC12W cells
ABSTRACT To investigate the influence of AT2 receptor stimulation on the ERK pathway and elucidate potential mechanisms of angiotensin II (ANG II)-mediated neuronal differentiation, we analysed tyrosine phosphorylation and activity of ERK after ANG II treatment of both quiescent and NGF-treated PC12W cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2 corresponded with the activity of ERK. While ANG II induced an initial activation of ERK in quiescent cells, the NGF-mediated plateau of ERK-stimulation was lowered by costimulation with ANG II. All effects of ANG II were sensitive to AT2 – but not AT1 receptor blockade. Ang II-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12W cells was inhibited by co-treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD 098059. These findings demonstrate that the AT2 receptor modulates ERK activity depending on the overall cellular input. The distinct regulation of ERK by ANG II and NGF further indicates basic differences in AT2 receptor- and NGF-induced neuronal differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: The pathobiology of prostate cancer (PCa)-induced bone pain (PCIBP) has both inflammatory and neuropathic components. Previously, we showed that small molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) antagonists with >1,000-fold selectivity over the angiotensin II type 1 receptor produced dose-dependent analgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Here, we assessed the analgesic efficacy and mode of action of the AT2 R antagonist, EMA200, in a rat model of PCIBP. At 14-21 days after unilateral intratibial injection of AT3B PCa cells, rats exhibiting hindpaw hypersensitivity received single intravenous bolus doses of EMA200 (0.3-10 mg/kg) or vehicle, and analgesic efficacy was assessed. The mode of action was investigated using immunohistochemical, Western blot, and/or molecular biological methods in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) removed from drug-naïve and EMA200-treated PCIBP rats relative to sham-control rats. Intravenous bolus doses of EMA200 produced dose-dependent analgesia in PCIBP rats. Lumbar DRG levels of angiotensin II, nerve growth factor (NGF), tyrosine kinase A (TrkA), phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phospho-p44/p42 MAPK, but not the AT2 R, were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in PCIBP rats, c.f. the corresponding levels for sham controls. EMA200 produced analgesia in PCIBP rats by reducing elevated angiotensin II levels in the lumbar DRGs to attenuate augmented angiotensin II/AT2 R signaling. This in turn reduced augmented NGF/TrkA signaling in the lumbar DRGs. The net result was inhibition of p38 MAPK and p44/p42 MAPK activation. Small molecule AT2 R antagonists are worthy of further investigation as novel analgesics for relief of intractable PCIBP and other pain types where hyperalgesia worsens symptoms.Pain Medicine 01/2014; 15(1):93-110. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious (pro-fibrotic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-hypertrophic) responses in vitro. Selective targeting of Hi-FGF-2 production may, therefore, reduce pathological remodelling in the human heart.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97281. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is an area of unmet clinical need. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and efficacy in rats of small molecule antagonists of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) for the relief of neuropathic pain. DESIGN AND METHODS.: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received single intravenous (1-10 mg/kg) or oral (5-10 mg/kg) bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, EMA400 or EMA401 (S-enantiomer of EMA400). Blood samples were collected immediately pre-dose and at specified times over a 12- to 24-hour post-dosing period. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma drug concentrations. Efficacy was assessed in adult male SD rats with a unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. RESULTS.: After intravenous administration in rats, mean (±standard error of the mean) plasma clearance for EMA200, EMA300, EMA400, and EMA401 was 9.3, 6.1, 0.7, and 1.1 L/hour/kg, respectively. After oral dosing, the dose-normalized systemic exposures of EMA400 and EMA401 were 20- to 30-fold and 50- to 60-fold higher than that for EMA300 and EMA200, respectively. The oral bioavailability of EMA400 and EMA401 was similar at ∼30%, whereas it was only 5.9% and 7.1% for EMA200 and EMA300, respectively. In CCI rats, single intraperitoneal bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, and EMA400 evoked dose-dependent pain relief. The pain relief potency rank order in CCI rats was EMA400 > EMA300 > EMA200 in agreement with the dose-normalized systemic exposure rank order in SD rats. CONCLUSION.: The small molecule AT2 R antagonist, EMA401, is in clinical development as a novel analgesic for the relief of neuropathic pain.Pain Medicine 03/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor