The ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cellular proteins requires the sequential activity of E1, E2 and, in some cases, E3 enzymes. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have cloned 1.0- and 2.5-kb cDNAs encoding the identical murine E2, or ubiquitin conjugating enzyme by virtue of its interaction with the E2A transcription factor. This cDNA encodes the 158-amino-acid protein, mUBC9, which has considerable sequence homology to UBC9 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and HUS5 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is identical to the human UBC9 protein. HUS5 is essential for DNA damage repair, whereas UBC9 is necessary for G2/M progression. The human protein has been shown to correct the UBC9 defect in yeast. Antisera raised against bacterially expressed mUBC9 fusion protein recognize a murine cellular protein of approximately 18 kDa, corresponding to the predicted mobility. Unlike E2A, the mUBC9 protein level is not regulated by serum growth factors. The activity of the apparent homologues UBC9 and HUS5 suggests that mUBC9 may be involved in the degradation of key nuclear proteins that regulate cell cycle progression.
"The putative nuclear localisation domain is identical in all the compared sequences. Another functional region of the E47 protein is the domain interacting with ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcE2A (477-530aa [18,19]). Within this region, runs of very high homology are seen between the sequences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During B lymphocyte development the E2A gene is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. With regards to the immunoglobulin genes the E2A proteins contribute to the regulation of gene rearrangement, expression and class switch recombination. We are now using the chicken cell line DT40 as a model system to further analyse the function of E2A.
Here we report the cloning and functional analysis of the transcription factor E2A from chicken. Using RACE PCR on the chicken lymphoma cell line DT40 we have isolated full-length clones for the two E2A splice variants E12 and E47. Sequence conservation between the human and chicken proteins is extensive: the basic-helix-loop-helix DNA binding domain of human and chicken E47 and E12 are 93% and 92% identical, respectively. In addition high levels of conservation are seen in activation domain I, the potential NLS and the ubiquitin ligase interaction domain. E2A is expressed in a variety of tissues in chicken, with higher levels of expression in organs rich in immune cells. We demonstrate that chicken E12 and E47 proteins are strong transcriptional activators whose function depends on the presence of activation domain I. As in mammals, the dominant negative proteins Id1 and Id3 can inhibit the function of chicken E47.
The potential for homologous recombination in DT40 allows the genetic dissection of biochemical pathways in somatic cells. With the cloning of avian E2A and the recent description of an in vitro somatic hypermutation assay in this cell line, it should now be possible to dissect the potential role of E2A in the regulation of somatic hypermutation and gene conversion.
"Although we did not compare the pattern of expression of Dach1 with that of p21(CIP1/WAF1) or other cell cycle regulators in our experiments, p21 is expressed in maturing chondrocytes and likely overlaps in its expression with Dach1 (Stewart et al., 1997). Furthermore, Dach1 associates with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, which is involved in the degradation of nuclear proteins that regulate cell cycle progression (Seufert et al., 1995; Loveys et al., 1997; Machon et al., 2000). Although we have not observed changes in proliferation as a result of transient or stable overexpression of Dach1 in cells in culture, results from localization studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Dach1 functions in the FGF pathway and contributes to the regulation of proliferation and/or cell cycle arrest, perhaps in conjunction with other genes of the retinal determination network. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dach1 is a mouse homologue of the Drosophila dachshund gene, which is a key regulator of cell fate determination during eye, leg, and brain development in the fly. We have investigated the expression and growth factor regulation of Dach1 during pre- and postnatal skeletal development in the mouse limb to understand better the function of Dach1. Dach1 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme of the early embryonic mouse limb bud and subsequently became restricted to the tips of digital cartilages. Dach1 protein was localized to postmitotic, prehypertrophic, and early hypertrophic chondrocytes during the initiation of ossification centers, but Dach1 was not expressed in growth plates that exhibited extensive ossification. Dach1 colocalized with Runx2/Cbfa1 in chondrocytes but not in the forming bone collar or primary spongiosa. Dach1 also colocalized with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 (Kip1) and p57 (Kip2) in chondrocytes of the growth plate and in the epiphysis before the formation of the secondary ossification center. Because fibroblast growth factors (FGF), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and hedgehog molecules (Hh) regulate skeletal patterning of the limb bud and chondrocyte maturation in developing endochondral bones, we investigated the regulation of Dach1 by these growth and differentiation factors. Expression of Dach1 in 11 days postcoitus mouse limb buds in organ culture was up-regulated by implanting beads soaked in FGF1, 2, 8, or 9 but not FGF10. BMP4-soaked beads down-regulated Dach1 expression, whereas Shh and bovine serum albumin had no effect. Furthermore, FGF4 or 8 could substitute for the apical ectodermal ridge in maintaining Dach1 expression in the limb buds. Immunolocalization of FGFR2 and FGFR3 revealed overlap with Dach1 expression during skeletal patterning and chondrocyte maturation. We conclude that Dach1 is a target gene of FGF signaling during limb skeletal development, and Dach1 may function as an intermediary in the FGF signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation or differentiation.
"cg, dorsal chain ganglia; nt, neural tube; te, telencephalon. mouse E2A (Kho et al., 1997; Loveys et al., 1997) have been documented to interact with mouse Ubc9. Human Ubc9 (hUbc9), which is 100% identical to the mouse homologue in its amino acid sequence, associates with Rad51 (Kovalenko et al., 1996) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (Masson et al., 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a yeast two hybrid system and pull-down assays we demonstrate that mouse Dac (mDac) specifically binds to mouse ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mUbc9. In contrast to a direct interaction between Drosophila dachshund (dac) and eyes absent (eya)gene products, we cannot detect by the same methods that mDac binds to mEya2, a functional mouse homologue of the Drosophila Eya. Immunostaining of various cell lines that were transfected with mDac reveals that mDac protein is found predominantly in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm and condensates along the nuclear membrane in a cell-cycle dependent manner. Deletion analysis of mDac show the intracellular localization and protein stability correlates with the binding to mUbc9. The C-terminal half of mDac, which associates with mUbc9, remains cytoplasmic and is degraded in proteasome whereas the non-interacting N-terminus is exclusively nuclear and more stable than the full-length mDac or its C-terminal portion. In situ hybridization on whole-mount embryos or tissue sections detects mUbc9 transcripts in complementary and overlapping areas with mDac expression, particularly in the proliferation zone of the limb buds, the spinal cord and forebrain. Mouse embryos stained with an anti-mDac antibody document that mDac is localized both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm with a cytoplasmic predominance in migrating neural crest cells. In the proliferation zone, visible nuclear envelopes are not formed and mDac is detected throughout the cells.
Mechanisms of Development 11/2000; 97(1-2):3-12. DOI:10.1016/S0925-4773(00)00402-0 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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