Magnetic purification of biotinylated cDNA removes false priming and ensures strand-specificity of RT-PCR for enteroviral RNAs
ABSTRACT The detection of replicative intermediate RNAs as markers of active replication of RNA viruses is an essential tool to investigate pathogenesis in acute viral infections, as well as in their long-term sequelae. In this regard, strand-specific PCR has been used widely to distinguish (−) and (+) enteroviral RNAs in pathogenesis studies of diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy. It has been generally assumed that oligonucleotide-primed reverse transcription of a given RNA generates only the corresponding specific cDNA, thus assuring the specificity of a PCR product amplified from it. Nevertheless, such assumed strand-specificity is a fallacy, because falsely primed cDNAs can be produced by RNA reverse transcription in the absence of exogenously added primers, (cDNAprimer(−)), and such falsely primed cDNAs are amplifiable by PCR in the same way as the correctly primed cDNAs. Using as a prototype the coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a (+) strand RNA virus, it was shown that cDNAprimer(−) renders the differential detection of viral (−) and (+) RNAs by conventional PCR virtually impossible, due to gross non-specificity. Using in vitro transcribed CVB5 RNAs (+) and (−), it was shown that cDNAprimer(−) could be removed effectively by magnetic physical separation of correctly primed biotinylated cDNA. Such strategy enabled truly strand-specific detection of RNA (−) and (+), not only for CVB5, but also for other non-polio enteroviruses. These findings indicate that previous conclusions supporting a role for the persistence of actively replicating enterovirus in the pathogenesis of chronic myocarditis should be regarded with strong skepticism and purification of correctly primed cDNA should be used for strand-specific PCR of viral RNA in order to obtain reliable information on this important subject.
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ABSTRACT: The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47953. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Medical Virology 07/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver diseases, such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To understand the life cycle and pathogenesis of HCV, the one-step growth of HCV in a cell culture system was analyzed using a highly infectious variant of the JFH1 clone. The observed profiles of HCV RNA replication indicated that the synthesis of negative-strand RNAs occurred at 6 h (h) after infection, followed by the active synthesis of positive-strand RNAs. Our measurements of infectious virus production showed that the latent period of HCV was about 12 h. The specific infectivity of HCV particles (focus-forming unit per viral RNA molecule) secreted to the extracellular milieu early in infection was about 30-fold higher than that secreted later during infection. The buoyant densities of the infectious virion particles differed with the duration of infection, indicating changes in the compositions of the virion particles.Virology 11/2012; 433(2):462–470. · 3.35 Impact Factor