Magnetic purification of biotinylated cDNA removes false priming and ensures strand-specificity of RT-PCR for enteroviral RNAs
ABSTRACT The detection of replicative intermediate RNAs as markers of active replication of RNA viruses is an essential tool to investigate pathogenesis in acute viral infections, as well as in their long-term sequelae. In this regard, strand-specific PCR has been used widely to distinguish (−) and (+) enteroviral RNAs in pathogenesis studies of diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy. It has been generally assumed that oligonucleotide-primed reverse transcription of a given RNA generates only the corresponding specific cDNA, thus assuring the specificity of a PCR product amplified from it. Nevertheless, such assumed strand-specificity is a fallacy, because falsely primed cDNAs can be produced by RNA reverse transcription in the absence of exogenously added primers, (cDNAprimer(−)), and such falsely primed cDNAs are amplifiable by PCR in the same way as the correctly primed cDNAs. Using as a prototype the coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a (+) strand RNA virus, it was shown that cDNAprimer(−) renders the differential detection of viral (−) and (+) RNAs by conventional PCR virtually impossible, due to gross non-specificity. Using in vitro transcribed CVB5 RNAs (+) and (−), it was shown that cDNAprimer(−) could be removed effectively by magnetic physical separation of correctly primed biotinylated cDNA. Such strategy enabled truly strand-specific detection of RNA (−) and (+), not only for CVB5, but also for other non-polio enteroviruses. These findings indicate that previous conclusions supporting a role for the persistence of actively replicating enterovirus in the pathogenesis of chronic myocarditis should be regarded with strong skepticism and purification of correctly primed cDNA should be used for strand-specific PCR of viral RNA in order to obtain reliable information on this important subject.
SourceAvailable from: Frank R M Stassen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Impaired interferon (IFN) production has been observed in various obstructive respiratory diseases. This contributes to enhanced sensitivity towards viral infections triggering acute exacerbations. To compensate for this impaired host IFN response, there is need to explore new therapeutic strategies, like exogenous administration of IFNs as prophylactic treatment. In the present study, we examined the protective potential of IFN-λ1 and compared it with the previously established protecting effect of IFN-β. A549 cells and human primary bronchial epithelial cells were first treated with either IFN-β (500 IU/ml) or IFN-λ1 (500 ng/ml) for 18 h. For infection, two approaches were adopted: i) Continuous scenario: after pre-treatment, cells were infected immediately for 24 h with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV1B) in IFN-containing medium, or were cultured for another 72 h in IFN-containing medium, and then infected for 24 h with HRV1B, ii) Pre-treatment scenario: IFN-containing medium was replaced after 18 h and cells were infected for 4 h either immediately after pre-treatment or after additional culturing for 72 h in IFN-free medium. The protective effect was evaluated in terms of reduction in the number of viral copies/infectious progeny, and enhanced expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In both cell types and in both approaches, IFN-λ1 and IFN-β treatment resulted in pronounced and long-lasting antiviral effects exemplified by significantly reduced viral copy numbers and diminished infectious progeny. This was associated with strong up-regulation of multiple ISGs. However, in contrast to the IFN-β induced expression of ISGs, which decreased over time, expression of ISGs induced by IFN-λ1 was sustained or even increased over time. Here we demonstrate that the protective potential of IFN-λ1 is comparable to IFN-β. Yet, the long-lasting induction of ISGs by IFN-λ1 and most likely less incitement of side effects due to more localized expression of its receptors could make it an even more promising candidate for prophylactic treatment than IFN-β.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95134. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095134 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a common colonizer of lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can enhance expression of the cellular receptor intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which in turn can be used by major group human rhinoviruses (HRVs) for attachment. Here, we evaluated the effect of NTHI-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 on viral replication and inflammatory responses toward different respiratory viruses. Therefore, human bronchial epithelial cells were pretreated with heat-inactivated NTHI (hi-NTHI) and subsequently infected with either HRV16 (major group), HRV1B (minor group), or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Pretreatment with hi-NTHI significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 in BEAS-2B cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells. Concomitantly, release of infectious HRV16 particles was increased in cells pretreated with hi-NTHI. Pretreatment with hi-NTHI also caused a significant increase in HRV16 RNA, whereas replication of HRV1B and RSV were increased to a far lesser extent and only at later time points. Interestingly, release of IL-6 and IL-8 after RSV, but not HRV, infection was synergistically increased in hi-NTHI-pretreated BEAS-2B cells. In summary, exposure to hi-NTHI significantly enhanced sensitivity toward HRV16 but not HRV1B or RSV, probably through ICAM-1 up-regulation. Furthermore, hi-NTHI pretreatment may enhance the inflammatory response to RSV infection, suggesting that preexisting bacterial infections might exaggerate inflammation during secondary viral infection.-Gulraiz, F., Bellinghausen, C., Bruggeman, C. A., and Stassen, F. R. Haemophilus influenzae increases the susceptibility and inflammatory response of airway epithelial cells to viral infections. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 11/2014; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-254359 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver diseases, such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To understand the life cycle and pathogenesis of HCV, the one-step growth of HCV in a cell culture system was analyzed using a highly infectious variant of the JFH1 clone. The observed profiles of HCV RNA replication indicated that the synthesis of negative-strand RNAs occurred at 6 h (h) after infection, followed by the active synthesis of positive-strand RNAs. Our measurements of infectious virus production showed that the latent period of HCV was about 12 h. The specific infectivity of HCV particles (focus-forming unit per viral RNA molecule) secreted to the extracellular milieu early in infection was about 30-fold higher than that secreted later during infection. The buoyant densities of the infectious virion particles differed with the duration of infection, indicating changes in the compositions of the virion particles.Virology 11/2012; 433(2):462–470. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.046 · 3.28 Impact Factor