Characterization of symmetrical spiral inductor in 0.35 μm CMOS technology for RF application
ABSTRACT Characteristics of symmetrical spiral inductor in differential mode is studied and optimized in this work. The characteristics of interest include inductor value, quality factor, peak frequency and self-resonance frequency. Both single-layer and double-layer inductor using top metals are characterized. Inductor excited in differential mode and single-ended mode are characterized for comparison. The optimized symmetrical spiral inductors are fabricated in standard digital 0.35 μm CMOS process. Experimental results show 60–100% improvement of quality factor and peak frequency, meanwhile 10–20% improvement of self-resonance frequency by exciting the symmetrical spiral inductors in differential mode compared with single-ended mode. To further validate the characterized inductor, the differential spiral inductors are adopted in optimizing low power and low phase noise fully integrated 2.4 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The designed VCO achieved phase noise of more than −105 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset with approximately 4.5 mA at 3.0 V supply.