Recent advancements in the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for S-LHC

Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK; Department of Physics & Astronomy, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK; Physics Department/Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, UK; Experimental Particle Physics Group, Syracuse University, Syracuse, USA; Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; SINTEF ICT P.O. Box 124 Blindern N-0314 Oslo, Norway; Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Physics Departments; Institute of Physics PAS and Institute of Electronics Technology, Warszawa, Poland; I.N.F.N. and Università di Perugia—Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy; University of Rochester; Purdue University, USA; State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; INFN Florence—Department of Energetics, University of Florence, Italy; Universita` di Pisa and INFN sez. di Pisa, Italy; ITC-IRST, Microsystems Division, Povo, Trento, Italy; Universita di Trieste & I.N.F.N.-Sezione di Trieste, Italy; Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK; Charles University Prague, Czech Republic; Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warszawa, Poland; National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest—Magurele, Romania; Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC); Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Groupe de la Physique des Particules, Université de Montreal, Canada; Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic; Jožef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Fermilab, USA; Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica & INFN—Bari, Italy; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; University of Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe, Germany; Ioffe Phisico-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia; Experimental Physics Department, University of Torino, Italy; IFIC Valencia, Apartado 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain; Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; Universitaet Dortmund, Lehrstuhl Experimentelle Physik IV, Dortmund, Germany; University of New Mexico; Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics; Tel Aviv University, Israel; Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki, Finland; Laboratory for Particle Physics, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin, Germany; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland; Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest; Belarusian State University, Minsk; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA; Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic; CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik gGmbH, Erfurt, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment (Impact Factor: 1.14). 05/2005; 552:7-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.05.039

ABSTRACT The proposed luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (S-LHC) at CERN will demand the innermost layers of the vertex detectors to sustain fluences of about 1016 hadrons/cm2. Due to the high multiplicity of tracks, the required spatial resolution and the extremely harsh radiation field new detector concepts and semiconductor materials have to be explored for a possible solution of this challenge. The CERN RD50 collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” has started in 2002 an R&D program for the development of detector technologies that will fulfill the requirements of the S-LHC. Different strategies are followed by RD50 to improve the radiation tolerance. These include the development of defect engineered silicon like Czochralski, epitaxial and oxygen-enriched silicon and of other semiconductor materials like SiC and GaN as well as extensive studies of the microscopic defects responsible for the degradation of irradiated sensors. Further, with 3D, Semi-3D and thin devices new detector concepts have been evaluated. These and other recent advancements of the RD50 collaboration are presented and discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: The effect of oxygen on diffusion of sodium implanted into silicon is studied for the first time in the temperature range from 500 to 850°C. A high-resistivity p-Si (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) grown by the Czochralski method in a magnetic field (mCz) with the oxygen concentration ∼3 × 1017 cm−3 was used. For comparison, we used silicon grown by the crucibleless floating zone method (fz). Temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient of sodium in the mCz-Si and fz-Si crystals were determined and written as D mCz[cm2/s] = 1.12exp(−1.64 eV/kT) cm2/s and D fz[cm2/s] = 0.024exp(−1.29 eV/kT) cm2/s, respectively. It is assumed that larger values of diffusion parameters in oxygen-containing silicon are caused by formation of complex aggregates that contain sodium and oxygen atoms.
    Semiconductors 08/2008; 42(9):1122-1126. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large set of silicon pad detectors produced on MCz and FZ wafer of p- and n-type was irradiated in two steps, first by fast charged hadrons followed by reactor neutrons. In this way the irradiations resemble the real irradiation fields at LHC. After irradiations controlled annealing started in steps during which the evolution of full depletion voltage, leakage current and charge collection efficiency was monitored. The damage introduced by different irradiation particles was found to be additive. The most striking consequence of that is a decrease of the full depletion voltage for n-type MCz detectors after additional neutron irradiation. This confirms that effective donors introduced by charged hadron irradiation are compensated by acceptors from neutron irradiation.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2009; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CERN RD50 collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” is developing radiation tolerant tracking detectors for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (Super-LHC). One of the main challenges arising from the target luminosity of 1035 cm−2 s−1 are the unprecedented high radiation levels. Over the anticipated 5 years lifetime of the experiment a cumulated fast hadron fluence of about 1016 cm−2 will be reached for the innermost tracking layers. Further challenges are the expected reduced bunch crossing time of about 10 ns and the high track density calling for fast and high granularity detectors which also fulfill the boundary conditions of low radiation length and low costs. After a short description of the expected radiation damage after a fast hadron fluence of 1016 cm−2, several R&D approaches aiming for radiation tolerant sensor materials (defect and material engineering) and sensor designs (device engineering) are reviewed and discussed. Special emphasis is put on detectors based on oxygen-enriched Floating Zone (FZ) silicon, Czochralski (CZ) silicon and epitaxial silicon. Furthermore, recent advancements on SiC and GaN detectors, single type column 3D detectors and p-type detectors will be presented.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 01/2006;