Recent advancements in the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for S-LHC

Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK; Department of Physics & Astronomy, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK; Physics Department/Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, UK; Experimental Particle Physics Group, Syracuse University, Syracuse, USA; Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; SINTEF ICT P.O. Box 124 Blindern N-0314 Oslo, Norway; Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Physics Departments; Institute of Physics PAS and Institute of Electronics Technology, Warszawa, Poland; I.N.F.N. and Università di Perugia—Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy; University of Rochester; Purdue University, USA; State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; INFN Florence—Department of Energetics, University of Florence, Italy; Universita` di Pisa and INFN sez. di Pisa, Italy; ITC-IRST, Microsystems Division, Povo, Trento, Italy; Universita di Trieste & I.N.F.N.-Sezione di Trieste, Italy; Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK; Charles University Prague, Czech Republic; Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warszawa, Poland; National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest—Magurele, Romania; Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC); Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Groupe de la Physique des Particules, Université de Montreal, Canada; Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic; Jožef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Fermilab, USA; Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica & INFN—Bari, Italy; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; University of Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe, Germany; Ioffe Phisico-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia; Experimental Physics Department, University of Torino, Italy; IFIC Valencia, Apartado 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain; Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania; Universitaet Dortmund, Lehrstuhl Experimentelle Physik IV, Dortmund, Germany; University of New Mexico; Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics; Tel Aviv University, Israel; Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki, Finland; Laboratory for Particle Physics, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin, Germany; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland; Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest; Belarusian State University, Minsk; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA; Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic; CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik gGmbH, Erfurt, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment (Impact Factor: 1.14). 05/2005; 552:7-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.05.039

ABSTRACT The proposed luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (S-LHC) at CERN will demand the innermost layers of the vertex detectors to sustain fluences of about 1016 hadrons/cm2. Due to the high multiplicity of tracks, the required spatial resolution and the extremely harsh radiation field new detector concepts and semiconductor materials have to be explored for a possible solution of this challenge. The CERN RD50 collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” has started in 2002 an R&D program for the development of detector technologies that will fulfill the requirements of the S-LHC. Different strategies are followed by RD50 to improve the radiation tolerance. These include the development of defect engineered silicon like Czochralski, epitaxial and oxygen-enriched silicon and of other semiconductor materials like SiC and GaN as well as extensive studies of the microscopic defects responsible for the degradation of irradiated sensors. Further, with 3D, Semi-3D and thin devices new detector concepts have been evaluated. These and other recent advancements of the RD50 collaboration are presented and discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: The effect of oxygen on diffusion of sodium implanted into silicon is studied for the first time in the temperature range from 500 to 850°C. A high-resistivity p-Si (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) grown by the Czochralski method in a magnetic field (mCz) with the oxygen concentration ∼3 × 1017 cm−3 was used. For comparison, we used silicon grown by the crucibleless floating zone method (fz). Temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient of sodium in the mCz-Si and fz-Si crystals were determined and written as D mCz[cm2/s] = 1.12exp(−1.64 eV/kT) cm2/s and D fz[cm2/s] = 0.024exp(−1.29 eV/kT) cm2/s, respectively. It is assumed that larger values of diffusion parameters in oxygen-containing silicon are caused by formation of complex aggregates that contain sodium and oxygen atoms.
    Semiconductors 08/2008; 42(9):1122-1126. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the framework of the CERN-RD50 Collaboration, the adoption of p-type substrates has been proposed as a suitable mean to improve the radiation hardness of silicon detectors up to fluencies of 1times10 <sup>16</sup> n/cm<sup>2</sup>. In this work two numerical simulation models will be presented for p-type and n-type silicon detectors, respectively. A comprehensive analysis of the variation of the effective doping concentration (N<sub>eff</sub>), the leakage current density and the charge collection efficiency as a function of the fluence has been performed using the Synopsys T-CAD device simulator. The simulated electrical characteristics of irradiated detectors have been compared with experimental measurements extracted from the literature, showing a very good agreement. The predicted behaviour of p-type silicon detectors after irradiation up to 10<sup>16</sup> n/cm<sup>2</sup> shows better results in terms of charge collection efficiency and full depletion voltage, with respect to n-type material, while comparable behaviour has been observed in terms of leakage current density
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 11/2006; · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work focuses on the investigation of radiation-induced defects responsible for the degradation of silicon detector performance. Comparative studies of the defects induced by irradiation with 60Co-γ rays, 6 and 15 MeV electrons, 23 GeV protons and reactor neutrons revealed the existence of point defects and cluster-related centers having a strong impact on damage properties of Si diodes. The detailed relation between the “microscopic” reasons as based on defect analysis and their “macroscopic” consequences for detector performance is presented. In particular, it is shown that the changes in the Si device properties (depletion voltage and leakage current) after exposure to high levels of 60Co-γ doses can be completely understood by the microscopically investigated formation of two point defects, a deep acceptor and a shallow donor, both depending strongly on the oxygen concentration in the silicon bulk. Specific for hadron irradiation are the annealing effects which decrease (increase) the originally observed damage effects as seen by the changes of the depletion voltage and these effects are known as “beneficial” and “reverse” annealing, respectively. A group of three cluster-related defects, revealed as deep hole traps, proved to be responsible specifically for the reverse annealing. Their formation is not affected by the oxygen content or silicon growth procedure suggesting that they are complexes of multi-vacancies located inside extended disordered regions.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2009; · 1.14 Impact Factor