Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 and 2A associate with and dephosphorylate neurofilaments
ABSTRACT The phosphorylation state of neurofilaments plays an important role in the control of cytoskeletal integrity, axonal transport, and axon diameter. Immunocytochemical analyses of spinal cord revealed axonal localization of all protein phosphatase subunits. To determine whether protein phosphatases associate with axonal neurofilaments, neurofilament proteins were isolated from bovine spinal cord white matter by gel filtration. ≈15% of the total phosphorylase a phosphatase activity was present in the neurofilament fraction. The catalytic subunits of PP1 and PP2A, as well as the A and Bα regulatory subunits of PP2A, were detected in the neurofilament fraction by immunoblotting, whereas PP2B and PP2C were found exclusively in the low molecular weight soluble fractions. PP1 and PP2A subunits could be partially dissociated from neurofilaments by high salt but not by phosphatase inhibitors, indicating that the interaction does not involve the catalytic site. In both neurofilament and soluble fractions, 75% of the phosphatase activity towards exogenous phosphorylase a could be attributed to PP2A, and the remainder to PP1 as shown with specific inhibitors. Neurofilament proteins were phosphorylated in vitro by associated protein kinases which appeared to include protein kinase A, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and heparin-sensitive and -insensitive cofactor-independent kinases. Dephosphorylation of phosphorylated neurofilament subunits was mainly (60%) catalyzed by associated PP2A, with PP1 contributing minor activity (10–20%). These studies suggest that neurofilament-associated PP1 and PP2A play an important role in the regulation of neurofilament phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of specific proteins was demonstrated directly in the intact vertebrate nervous system in vivo. By exploiting the neurons' ability to segregate a select group of cytoskeletal proteins from most other phosphorylated constituents of the cell by axoplasmic transport, we were able to examine the dynamics of phosphate turnover on neurofilament proteins in mouse retinal ganglion cell neurons simultaneously labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and [3H]proline in vivo. Three [3H]proline-labeled neurofilament protein (NFP) subunits, designated H (160-200 kDa), M (135-145 kDa), and L (68-70 kDa), entered optic axons in a mole:mole ratio similar to that of isolated axonal neurofilaments, supporting the notion that newly synthesized NFPs are transported along axons as assembled neurofilaments. NFP subunits incorporated high levels of 32P before reaching axonal sites at the level of the optic nerve. As neurofilaments were transported along axons, however, many initially incorporated [32P]phosphate groups were removed. Loss of these phosphate groups occurred to a different extent on each subunit. A minimum of 50-60 and 35-40% of the labeled phosphate groups was removed in a 5-day period from the L and M subunits, respectively. By contrast, the H subunit exhibited relatively little or no phosphate turnover during the same period. Dephosphorylation of L in axons is accompanied by a decrease in its net state of phosphorylation; changes in the phosphorylation state of H and M, however, also reflect ongoing addition of phosphates to these polypeptides during axonal transport (Nixon, R.A., Lewis, S.E., and Marotta, C.A. (1986) J. Neurosci., in press). The possibility is raised that dynamic rearrangements of phosphate topography on NFPs represent a mechanism to coordinate interactions of neurofilaments with other proteins as these elements are transported and incorporated into the stationary cytoskeleton along retinal ganglion cell axons.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1987; 261(35):16298-301. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurochemistry - J NEUROCHEM. 01/2002; 64(6):2681-2690.