Brain activation during human finger extension and flexion movements
ABSTRACT Corticospinal projections to the motor neuron pool of upper-limb extensor muscles have been reported to differ from those of the flexor muscles in humans and other primates. The influence of this difference on the central nervous system control for extension and flexion movements is unknown. Cortical activation during thumb extension and flexion movements of eight human volunteers was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which detects signal changes caused by an alteration in the local blood oxygenation level. Although the relative activity of the extensor and flexor muscles of the thumb was similar, the brain volume activated during extension was substantially larger than that during flexion. These fMRI results were confirmed by measurements of EEG-derived movement-related cortical potential. Higher brain activity during thumb extension movement may be a result of differential corticospinal, and possibly other pathway projections to the motoneuron pools of extensor and flexor muscles of upper the extremities.
Conference Proceeding: Detection of Hand Extension Movements in the Context of a 3-State Asynchronous Brain Interface[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) is a direct brain interface (BI) that detects the presence of a specific finger movement in the ongoing EEG. Asynchronous interfaces have the advantage of being operational at all times and not only at specific system-defined periods. In this paper, we present the design of a 3-state asynchronous BI for the detection of two different movements from the ongoing EEG. The proposed 3-state asynchronous BI detects right and left hand extensions. Using data collected from two able-bodied individuals, it is shown that the error characteristics of the new system in detecting the presence of movement are significantly better than the 2-state LF-ASD, with true positive rate increases of up to 22.4% for false positive rates in the 1-2% range. An average performance of 61.5% was achieved in differentiating between left and right hand movementsAcoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2006. ICASSP 2006 Proceedings. 2006 IEEE International Conference on; 06/2006 · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most existing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) detect specific mental activity in a so-called synchronous paradigm. Unlike synchronous systems which are operational at specific system-defined periods, self-paced (asynchronous) interfaces have the advantage of being operational at all times. The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) is a 2-state self-paced BCI that detects the presence of a specific finger movement in the ongoing EEG. Recent evaluations of the 2-state LF-ASD show an average true positive rate of 41% at the fixed false positive rate of 1%. This paper proposes two designs for a 3-state self-paced BCI that is capable of handling idle brain state. The two proposed designs aim at detecting right- and left-hand extensions from the ongoing EEG. They are formed of two consecutive detectors. The first detects the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement and the second classifies the detected movement as a right or a left one. In an offline analysis of the EEG data collected from four able-bodied individuals, the 3-state brain-computer interface shows a comparable performance with a 2-state system and significant performance improvement if used as a 2-state BCI, that is, in detecting the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement (regardless of the type of movement). It has an average true positive rate of 37.5% and 42.8% (at false positives rate of 1%) in detecting right- and left-hand extensions, respectively, in the context of a 3-state self-paced BCI and average detection rate of 58.1% (at false positive rate of 1%) in the context of a 2-state self-paced BCI.Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 02/2007;
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate differences within individual subjects in the ability to activate the quadriceps, plantar flexors (PF), dorsiflexors (DF), and elbow flexors (EF) during isometric contractions. Twelve male subjects performed submaximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and maximal tetanic contractions were also induced by electrical stimulation. The interpolated twitch technique was used to gauge the extent of muscle inactivation or inability to produce maximum force. Measurements included torque output, absolute and relative rate of force development (RFD), and percentage of muscle inactivation. The quadriceps exceeded all other muscle groups in voluntary and tetanic torque output, voluntary absolute RFD, and absolute and relative tetanic RFD. The quadriceps also exceeded the PF and DF in voluntary relative RFD and had greater muscle inactivation (15.5%) than the EF (5.0%), PF (5.0%), and DF (1.3%). Although the higher RFD may suggest a higher percentage of type II fibers in the quadriceps, their higher threshold of recruitment leads to greater difficulty in fully activating the quadriceps.Muscle & Nerve 03/2002; 25(2):236-43. · 2.37 Impact Factor