The purple pigment aplysioviolin in sea hare ink deters predatory blue crabs through their chemical senses. Anim Behav

Neuroscience Institute and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, United States
Animal Behaviour (Impact Factor: 3.14). 07/2010; 80(1):89-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.04.003


Sea hares release an ink secretion composed of purple ink and white opaline as a potential chemical defence against predators. The aim of our study was to identify deterrent molecules in the ink of Aplysia californica against an allopatric generalist crustacean predator, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, and to define the mechanisms of action of the deterrents against crabs. We used two behavioural assays, a squirting assay and an ingestion assay, to show that ink is highly effective and that opaline is moderately effective in suppressing feeding of crabs. Results with reversibly blinded crabs demonstrate that the deterrence is mediated through the crabs’ chemical senses. We used bioassay-guided fractionation to identify the purple molecules aplysioviolin and phycoerythrobilin as a major and minor deterrent, respectively, in ink against crabs. These molecules derive from a light-harvesting protein in the photosynthetic system of dietary algae. This is the first demonstration of an animal converting a photosynthetic pigment into a chemical deterrent. Mixing opaline and ink enzymatically produces hydrogen peroxide, which also functions as a chemical deterrent against crabs. Our results and those of other studies show that sea hares use a diversity of molecules in their skin, mucus and ink secretion to chemically defend themselves against their potential predators. Aplysioviolin, phycoerythrobilin and hydrogen peroxide also exist in ink secretion of Aplysia dactylomela, a sea hare sympatric to blue crabs, and thus we posit that these molecules are potentially effective in ecologically relevant predator–prey interactions and need to be scrutinized in more ecologically relevant experiments.

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Available from: Charles Derby, Apr 06, 2014
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    • "Because volatile odors are an important factor in land crab foraging behavior, it is probable that an existing, previously identified chemical deterrent could be utilized to reduce or eliminate land crab interference with bait products and devices used in rodent control projects. Chemical deterrents for crustacean predators have been identified in molluscs (Kamio et al., 2010) and algae (Cruz-Rivera and Paul, 2007; Pereira et al., 2000). A number of volatile, food-grade compounds are used as lures or 'taste masks' in pesticide bait formulations and, at specified concentrations, do not appear to affect the palatability of the bait to target species. "
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    Biological Conservation 03/2015; 185:47-58. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.10.016 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous work on slow-moving inking molluscs—sea hares, Aplysia spp.—revealed a variety of molecules acting as chemical defenses through a variety of mechanisms (Derby, 2007; Derby and Aggio, 2011). One mechanism is the use of deterrent chemicals, either dietderived or synthesized de novo, that are aversive or unpalatable to predators (Aggio and Derby, 2008; Kamio et al., 2010, 2011; Nusnbaum and Derby, 2010a, b; Nusnbaum et al., 2012; Aggio et al., 2012). A second mechanism is phagomimicry, in which predators are distracted by attractive and appetitive compounds in the ink (Kicklighter et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical and visual defenses are used by many organisms to avoid being approached or eaten by predators. An example is inking molluscs-including gastropods such as sea hares and cephalopods such as squid, cuttlefish, and octopus-which release a colored ink upon approach or attack. Previous work showed that ink can protect molluscs through a combination of chemical, visual, and other effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ink from longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, on the behavior of two species of predatory fishes, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and sea catfish, Ariopsis felis. Using a cloud assay, we found that ink from longfin inshore squid affected the approach phase of predation by summer flounder, primarily through its visual effects. Using a food assay, we found that the ink affected the consummatory and ingestive phase of predation of both sea catfish and summer flounder, through the ink's chemical properties. Fractionation of ink showed that most of its deterrent chemical activity is associated with melanin granules, suggesting that either compounds adhering to these granules or melanin itself are the most biologically active. This work provides the basis for a comparative approach to identify deterrent molecules from inking cephalopods and to examine neural mechanisms whereby these chemicals affect behavior of fish, using the sea catfish as a chemosensory model.
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    • "Sea hares methylate a hydroxyl group of phycoerythrobilin to produce aplysioviolin, which they concentrate and store in the ink gland. Aplysioviolin acts through the olfactory system to deter the approach phase of attack by fishes and to affect the consumptive phase in both fish and crustaceans by being unpalatable (Kamio et al. 2010b; Nusnbaum 2011; J. Aggio, unpublished data). A second set of chemicals that act directly against predators are not diet-derived but are related to a protein produced in the sea hares' ink gland. "
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