Associations of weight gain and food intake with leukocyte sub-sets in Large White pigs
ABSTRACT Associations between productivity and a range of immune traits were tested by multiple regression analysis on 128 Large White pigs (62 male, 66 female). Daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and efficiency (i.e. weight gain/feed intake), assessed from 14 to 24 weeks of age, were the productivity traits. Total and differential white blood cell count and leukocyte sub-sets positive for CD4, CD8, CD11R1, gamma delta T cells, B cell, and monocyte markers, all measured at 18 and 24 weeks, were the immune traits. At 24 weeks of age, higher percentages of monocytes were associated with a decrease in daily weight gain. Higher percentages of B cells were associated with a decrease in daily feed intake. Higher percentages of CD11R1 positive cells were associated with a decrease in daily weight gain and a decrease in efficiency. Relationships at the age of 18 weeks were similar, but slightly less significant. Associations between the numbers of monocytes, MIL-4 positive cells and B cells and certain performance traits were also observed at the age of 24 weeks. Overall, these results indicate an association between productivity and certain immune traits. We suggest that the observed associations between these immune traits and performance could be due to the impact of sub-clinical infections.
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ABSTRACT: To understand why sick animals do not eat, investigators have studied how the immune system interacts with the central nervous system (CNS), where motivation to eat is ultimately controlled. The focus has been on the cytokines secreted by activated mononuclear myeloid cells, which include interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Either central or peripheral injection of recombinant IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha reduce food-motivated behavior and food intake in rodents. Moreover, these cytokines and their receptors are present in the endocrine system and brain, and antagonism of this system (i.e., the cytokine network) has been shown to block or abrogate anorexia induced by inflammatory stimuli. Recent studies indicate that the same cytokines act on adipocytes and induce secretion of leptin, a protein whose activity has been neuroanatomically mapped to brain areas involved in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Therefore, many findings converge to suggest that the reduction of food intake in sick animals is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, which convey a message from the immune system to the endocrine system and CNS. The nature of this interaction is the focus of this short review.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 10/1998; 15(5):309-19. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Crossbred pigs were used to evaluate the effects of shipping stress on natural killer (NK) cell activity, leukocyte numbers, plasma cortisol, and BW changes. In the first study, pigs were bled at a commercial farm and, after shipping, resident and shipped pigs were bled again. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not different (P > .10) because of large variation in cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, NK cytotoxicity was nondetectable among all pigs. A second study showed that plasma cortisol concentration rose by approximately 2.6 ng/mL (P = .018) for each minute after pigs were aroused. In the third, more controlled study, pigs were housed in pens of three pigs each. Video recordings were made during the first 24 h pigs were grouped to identify socially dominant, intermediate, and submissive pigs. At time zero (before shipping), resident pigs and those to be shipped had similar plasma cortisol concentrations. However, after the 4-h shipping experience, shipped pigs had elevated (P < .05) plasma cortisol compared with resident control pigs. Shipped pigs lost 5.1% of their BW (P < .05) compared with resident pigs, which gained .02% of their BW. Body weight change during shipping and plasma cortisol were negatively correlated (r = -.34, P = .04), indicating pigs that had greater adrenal response to shipping also lost more weight during shipping. Shipping reduced (P < .05) NK cytotoxicity among pigs of intermediate and submissive social status compared with shipped, dominant pigs. At the end of shipping or control treatments, the correlation between NK cytotoxicity and plasma cortisol was positive (r = .35, P = .036), indicating that pigs with greater cortisol response had greater NK cytotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Animal Science 04/1993; 71(4):888-96. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although non-major-histocompatibility-complex-restricted cytolytic cells appear to significantly influence antiviral immunity in pigs, the phenotype and functional characteristics of these cells are not well defined. To allow a detailed analysis of these subsets, we established and characterized cell lines and clones of interleukin-2-activated (IL-2) cytolytic cells. Cell lines and clones were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of minipigs of the swine-leucocyte-antigen-complex (SLA) d/d haplotype. Cells were cultured in the presence of human recombinant IL-2 and cloned by double limiting dilution in the presence of gamma-irradiated L14 cells (a retrovirus immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell line of the haplotype SLAd/d) or gamma-irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells as feeder cells. Cytolytic cell lines and clones were characterized for their ability to kill different target cells and for their cell surface phenotype. All obtained clones expressed CD2 and CD8 and were negative for CD4. The following three subsets of cytolytic cells were identified: Subset 1) CD3- CD5- cells that killed K562 cells (a natural killer cell susceptible target cell line), as well as the pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected or uninfected porcine kidney cells. These cells were considered to be typical natural killer cells. Subset 2) CD3 gamma/delta + CD5- T-cells that killed K562 cells and PRV virus-infected or uninfected porcine kidney cells, infected or uninfected L14 cells, and L14 cells constitutively expressing the PRV viral glycoprotein gB or gC. These cells were considered to be gamma/delta T-cells with natural killer activity. Subset 3) CD3 alpha/beta + CD5+ T-cells that killed L14 cells, PRV-infected L14 cells, and PRV gB- and gC-transfected L14 cells. These cells were possibly induced by the L14 feeder cells, used in the in vitro culture system. None of the cytolytic effector cells killed only MHC-matched viral infected cells. In conclusion, we describe a method to isolate, clone, and culture cytolytic cells from pigs. The clones could be cultured for 5 months, which allowed appropriate phenotypic and functional characterization of the various clones. Two of the subsets, CD3 gamma/delta T- and the natural killer cell subset may be involved in antiviral immunity in this species.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/1997; 59(3-4):337-47. · 1.88 Impact Factor