Mutation of juxtamembrane cysteines in the tetraspanin CD81 affects palmitoylation and alters interaction with other proteins at the cell surface
ABSTRACT Palmitoylation of tetraspanins affects protein–protein interactions, suggesting a key role in the assembly of the tetraspanin web. Since palmitoylation occurs on intracellular cysteine residues, we examined whether mutating these residues in the human tetraspanin CD81 would affect the association of CD81 with other surface membrane proteins. Mutation of at least six of the eight juxtamembrane cysteines was required to completely eliminate detectable CD81 palmitoylation, indicating that several sites can be palmitoylated. Interestingly, these mutated proteins exhibited reduced cell surface detection by antibody compared to wild-type CD81, but this was not due to differences in the level of protein expression, trafficking to the cell surface, protein stability, or anti-CD81 antibody binding affinity. Instead, the mutant CD81 proteins appeared to be partially hidden from detection by anti-CD81 antibody, presumably due to altered interactions with other proteins at the cell surface. Associations with the known CD81-interacting proteins CD9 and EWI-2 were also impaired with the mutant CD81 proteins. Taken together, these findings indicate that mutation of juxtamembrane cysteines alters the interaction of CD81 with other proteins, either because of reduced palmitoylation, structural alterations in the mutant proteins, or a combination of both factors, and this affects the CD81 microenvironment on the cell surface.
Article: CD81AfCS-Nature Molecule Pages 01/2010; DOI:10.1038/mp.a000591.01
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ABSTRACT: Astrocytes play a major role in the reactive processes in response to neuronal injuries in the brain. Excessive gliosis is detrimental and can contribute to neuronal damage. CD81 (TAPA), a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, is upregulated by astrocytes after traumatic injury to the rat central nervous system (CNS). To further understand the role of CD81 in the inhibition of astrocytes, we analyzed the effects of a CD81 antibody, on cultured rat astrocytes. The results indicated that the effect worked in a dose-dependent manner with certain dosage range. It, however, reached a dosage equilibrium at a high dosage. Furthermore, anti-CD81 antibody remarkably inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes after incubation with astrocytes for different periods of time and the effect presented a time-dependent fashion. However, anti-CD81 antibody substantially inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes at low density and middle density but slightly inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes at high density, suggesting that the effect was positively correlated with the proliferative ability of astrocytes. Finally, the cell cycle of astrocytes exposured to anti-CD81 antibody was arrested in S phase at the initial stage and at G(0)/G(1) phase over time. These findings indicated that CD81 exert significant inhibitory effect, dose-dependently and time-dependently, on the proliferation of astrocytes and the effect is positively correlated with the proliferative capability of astrocytes.Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 04/2010; 30(2):201-5. DOI:10.1007/s11596-010-0214-1 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD81 is an integral membrane protein in the tetraspanin superfamily that serves as an adaptor protein. CD81 is also a maternally imprinted gene that is found in a regulated cluster of genes on mouse chromosome 7. Among offspring produced from heterozygous breeding pairs, CD81(null/null) mice grew at the same rate as CD81(+/+) and CD81(+/null) mice. Because of an inhibition in sperm-egg fusion, CD81(null/null) female mice are much less fertile than CD81(+/+) and CD81(+/null) mice. However, no published study has detailed the effect of the male CD81 genotype on the genotype and sex distribution of offspring. We set up breeding pairs of heterozygotic (C.129-Cd81(tm1) N7) female mice and male mice with CD81(+/null), CD81(+/+), or CD81(null/null) genotypes. The survival and development of CD81(+/null), CD81(+/+), and CD81(null/null) offspring were monitored and compared. Compared with those of heterozygous male breeders, CD81(null/null) pups were born at a less-than-expected ratio from CD81(null/null) males. Sex distribution did not differ among pups sired by CD81(null/null) compared with CD81(+/null) mice. The data suggest that the effect of the CD81(null/null) paternal genotype on offspring is manifested early in development or in utero.Comparative medicine 06/2010; 60(3):196-9. · 0.76 Impact Factor