Palmitoylation of tetraspanins affects protein–protein interactions, suggesting a key role in the assembly of the tetraspanin web. Since palmitoylation occurs on intracellular cysteine residues, we examined whether mutating these residues in the human tetraspanin CD81 would affect the association of CD81 with other surface membrane proteins. Mutation of at least six of the eight juxtamembrane cysteines was required to completely eliminate detectable CD81 palmitoylation, indicating that several sites can be palmitoylated. Interestingly, these mutated proteins exhibited reduced cell surface detection by antibody compared to wild-type CD81, but this was not due to differences in the level of protein expression, trafficking to the cell surface, protein stability, or anti-CD81 antibody binding affinity. Instead, the mutant CD81 proteins appeared to be partially hidden from detection by anti-CD81 antibody, presumably due to altered interactions with other proteins at the cell surface. Associations with the known CD81-interacting proteins CD9 and EWI-2 were also impaired with the mutant CD81 proteins. Taken together, these findings indicate that mutation of juxtamembrane cysteines alters the interaction of CD81 with other proteins, either because of reduced palmitoylation, structural alterations in the mutant proteins, or a combination of both factors, and this affects the CD81 microenvironment on the cell surface.
"Palmitoylation occurs at the eight juxtamembrane cysteine residues of CD81 (Delandre et al., 2009). Covalent attachment of palmitate is a post-translational modification that influences protein–protein interactions and association with cholesterol-rich domains of membranes (Linder and Deschenes, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD81, a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily and is heavily palmitoylated in the juxtamembrane cysteine residues. Palmitoylation plays an important role in protein-protein interactions and association with cholesterol-rich domains of membranes. In this study, Huh7 cells expressing wild-type or palmitoylation-defective CD81 were generated to analyze whether palmitoylation of CD81 is involved in HCV cell entry. Our data showed that de-palmitoylation of CD81 dramatically reduced its association with tetraspanin CD151, but did not influence CD81 partition in detergent-resistant membranes. Moreover, de-palmitoylated CD81 decreased the host cell susceptibility to HCV. Notably, CD151-specific antibodies and siRNA inhibited HCV cell entry, and detachment of CD81 with CD151 decreased the lateral movement of virus particle/CD81 complex to areas of cell-cell contact. These results suggest that palmitoylation of CD81 should facilitate HCV entry, at least in part, by regulating the association of CD81 with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes play a major role in the reactive processes in response to neuronal injuries in the brain. Excessive gliosis is detrimental and can contribute to neuronal damage. CD81 (TAPA), a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, is upregulated by astrocytes after traumatic injury to the rat central nervous system (CNS). To further understand the role of CD81 in the inhibition of astrocytes, we analyzed the effects of a CD81 antibody, on cultured rat astrocytes. The results indicated that the effect worked in a dose-dependent manner with certain dosage range. It, however, reached a dosage equilibrium at a high dosage. Furthermore, anti-CD81 antibody remarkably inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes after incubation with astrocytes for different periods of time and the effect presented a time-dependent fashion. However, anti-CD81 antibody substantially inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes at low density and middle density but slightly inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes at high density, suggesting that the effect was positively correlated with the proliferative ability of astrocytes. Finally, the cell cycle of astrocytes exposured to anti-CD81 antibody was arrested in S phase at the initial stage and at G(0)/G(1) phase over time. These findings indicated that CD81 exert significant inhibitory effect, dose-dependently and time-dependently, on the proliferation of astrocytes and the effect is positively correlated with the proliferative capability of astrocytes.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 04/2010; 30(2):201-5. DOI:10.1007/s11596-010-0214-1 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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