Article

Colorimetric determination of reducing sugars in soils

Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, U.S.A.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 01/1994; DOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(94)90179-1

ABSTRACT Reducing sugars are the end products of many biological processes and enzymatic reactions in soils. They are determined in assay of several soil enzymes, including cellulase activity. Five colorimetric methods [phenol-sulfuric acid, anthrone-sulfuric acid, dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS), reaction with potassium ferric hexa-cyanide reagent (Prussian blue), and the Somogyi-Nelson (molybdenum blue) methods] were evaluated for determination of reducing sugars and total saccharides extracted from soils. Results showed that the Prussian blue and the molybdenum blue methods were the most sensitive and accurate for determination of reducing sugars in soils. Metals extracted from soils interfered with molybdenum blue color development. These metals, however, could be removed by K-saturated resin before analysis. The trace amount of metals extracted from soils did not interfere with the Prussian blue color development, but this method is too sensitive to be useful for determination of reducing sugars in soil extracts. Unlike the Prussian blue method, which is very sensitive and has 1 h color stability, the molybdenum blue method has color stability of at least 24 h. Reducing sugar values in soils increased significantly upon air-drying of field-moist soils or incubation of soils with acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.5) at 30°C for 24 h, suggesting enzymatic hydrolysis of the native substrates. Calibration graphs showed that the phenol-sulfuric acid, DNS, and anthrone-sulfuric acid methods are not as sensitive as the other two methods.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
385 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fourteen baicalein and 3,7-dihydroxyflavone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the in vitro growth of three human tumor cell lines. The synthetic approaches were based on the reaction with prenyl or geranyl bromide in alkaline medium, followed by cyclization of the respective monoprenylated derivative. Dihydropyranoflavonoids were also obtained by one-pot synthesis, using Montmorillonite K10 clay as catalyst combined with microwave irradiation. In vitro screening of the compounds for cell growth inhibitory activity revealed that the presence of one geranyl group was associated with a remarkable increase in the inhibitory activity. Moreover, for the 3,7-dihydroxyflavone derivatives a marked increase in growth inhibitory effect was also observed for compounds with furan and pyran fused rings. The most active compounds were also studied regarding their effect on cell cycle profile and induction of apoptosis. Overall the results point to the relevant role of the prenylation of flavone scaffold in the growth inhibitory activity of cancer cells.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 06/2011; 46(6):2562-74. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work we investigated the degradation process ofpolyether-polyol-based polyurethane (PUR) elastomeric films in the presence of a mixed thermophilic culture as a model of a natural bacterial consortium. The presence of PUR material in cultivation medium resulted in delayed but intensive growth of the bacterial culture. The unusually long lag phase was caused by the release of unreacted polyether polyol and tin catalyst from the material. The lag phase was significantly shortened and the biodegradability of PUR materials was enhanced by partial replacement (10%) of polyether polyol with biopolymers (carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, acetyl cellulose and actylated starch). The process of material degradation consisted of two steps. First, the materials were mechanically disrupted and, second, the bacterial culture was able to utilize abiotic degradation products, which resulted in supported bacterial growth. Direct utilization of PUR by the bacterial culture was observed as well, but the bacterial culture contributed only slightly to the total mass losses. The only exception was PUR material modified by acetyl cellulose. In this case, direct biodegradation represented the major mechanism of material decomposition. Moreover, PUR material modified by acetyl cellulose did not tend to undergo abiotic degradation. In conclusion, the modification of PUR by proper biopolymers is a promising strategy for reducing potential negative effects of waste PUR materials on the environment and enhancing their biodegradability.
    Environmental Technology 07/2011; 32(9-10):1043-52. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, capability of Fusarium solani F-552 of producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in submerged fermentation was investigated. The enzyme cocktail includes hydrolases (cellulases, xylanases, and proteinases) as well as ligninolytic enzymes: manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase (Lac). To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of MnP, LiP, and Lac together by one F. solani strain. The enzyme productions were significantly influenced by application of either lignocellulosic material or chemical inducers into the fermentation medium. Among them, corn bran significantly enhanced especially productions of cellulases and xylanases (248 and 170 U/mL, respectively) as compared to control culture (11.7 and 29.2 U/mL, respectively). High MnP activity (9.43 U/mL, control 0.45 U/mL) was observed when (+)-catechin was applied into the medium, the yield of LiP was maximal (33.06 U/mL, control 2.69 U/mL) in gallic acid, and Lac was efficiently induced by, 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethyltiazoline-6-sulfonate] (6.74 U/mL, not detected in control). Finally, in order to maximize the ligninolytic enzymes yields, a novel strategy of introduction of mild oxidative stress conditions caused by hydrogen peroxide into the fermentation broth was tested. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased activities of MnP, LiP, and Lac which may indicate that these enzymes could be partially involved in stress response against H(2)O(2). The concentration of H(2)O(2) and the time of the stress application were optimized; hence, when 10 mmol/L H(2)O(2) was applied at the second and sixth day of cultivation, the MnP, LiP, and Lac yields reached 21.67, 77.42, and 12.04 U/mL, respectively.
    Folia Microbiologica 04/2012; 57(3):221-7. · 0.79 Impact Factor