Zinc oxide particles induce inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells via NF-κB signaling
ABSTRACT This study investigated inflammatory effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles on vascular endothelial cells. The effects of 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were characterized by assaying cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and glutathione levels. A marked drop in survival rate was observed when ZnO concentration was increased to 45 μg/ml. ZnO concentrations of ≤3 μg/ml resulted in increased cell proliferation, while those of ≤45 μg/ml caused dose-dependent increases in oxidized glutathione levels. Treatments with ZnO concentrations ≤45 μg/ml were performed to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein, an indicator of vascular endothelium inflammation, revealing that ZnO particles induced a dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression and marked increases in NF-κB reporter activity. Overexpression of IκBα completely inhibited ZnO-induced ICAM-1 expression, suggesting NF-κB plays a pivotal role in regulation of ZnO-induced inflammation in HUVECs. Additionally, TNF-α, a typical inflammatory cytokine, induced ICAM-1 expression in an NF-κB-dependent manner, and ZnO synergistically enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. Both 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles agglomerated to similar size distributions. This study reveals an important role for ZnO in modulating inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells via NF-κB signaling, which could have important implications for treatments of vascular disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Johannes Hulthe[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circulating oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) is associated with clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and Ox-LDL. The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between clinically silent ultrasound-assessed atherosclerotic changes in the carotid and femoral arteries and Ox-LDL and to explore the relationship between Ox-LDL, C-reactive protein, and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The study group (n=391) consisted of clinically healthy, 58-year-old men recruited from the general population. Ox-LDL was measured by using a specific monoclonal antibody, mAb-4E6. The results showed that Ox-LDL was related to intima-media thickness and plaque occurrence in the carotid and femoral arteries. In addition, Ox-LDL was associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein. Circulating Ox-LDL was also associated with LDL cholesterol but not with blood pressure or smoking. When adjusting for other risk factors, both LDL cholesterol and Ox-LDL seemed to be independent predictors of plaque occurrence in the carotid and femoral arteries (odds ratios for quintile 5 versus quintile 1 were 2.17, P=0.049 and 2.25, P=0.050, for LDL cholesterol and Ox-LDL, respectively). Ox-LDL was associated with both subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory variables, supporting the concept that oxidatively modified LDL may play a major role in atherosclerosis development, although no causality can be shown in this cross-sectional study.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/2002; 22(7):1162-7. · 6.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), fullerenes (C(60)), carbon black (CB), nC(60), and quantum dots (QD) have been studied in vitro to determine their toxicity in a number of cell types. Here, we report that classical dye-based assays such as MTT and neutral red (NR) that determine cell viability produce invalid results with some NM (nanomaterials) due to NM/dye interactions and/or NM adsorption of the dye/dye products. In this study, human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed in vitro to CB, SWCNT, C(60), nC(60), and QD to assess viability with calcein AM (CAM), Live/Dead (LD), NR, MTT, Celltiter 96 AQueous One (96 AQ), alamar Blue (aB), Celltiter-Blue (CTB), CytoTox Onetrade mark (CTO), and flow cytometry. In addition, trypan blue (TB) was quantitated by light microscopy. Assay linearity (R(2) value) was determined with HEK plated at concentrations from 0 to 25,000 cells per well in 96-well plates. HEK were treated with serial dilutions of each NM for 24 h and assessed with each of the viability assays. TB, CAM and LD assays, which depend on direct staining of living and/or dead cells, were difficult to interpret due to physical interference of the NM with cells. Results of the dye-based assays varied a great deal, depending on the interactions of the dye/dye product with the carbon nanomaterials (CNM). Results show the optimal high throughput assay for use with carbon and noncarbon NM was 96 AQ. This study shows that, unlike small molecules, CNM interact with assay markers to cause variable results with classical toxicology assays and may not be suitable for assessing nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Therefore, more than one assay may be required when determining nanoparticle toxicity for risk assessment.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2008; 234(2):222-35. · 3.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, we used porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) as an in vitro system to investigate the role of intracellular GSH status in arsenite-induced vascular endothelial damage. Exposure of PAECs to l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), markedly enhanced the arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. The data implied that intracellular GSH might play an important role in protection of PAECs from arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of arsenite exposure increased intracellular GSH concentrations, whereas high concentrations of arsenite exposure decreased intracellular GSH concentrations. We further modulated intracellular GSH concentration by using GSH modulators. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-cystine (oxidized l-cysteine), by up-regulating intracellular GSH concentrations, were shown to protect PAECs from arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, BSO and monosodium glutamate (MSG), which down-regulated the intracellular GSH concentrations, further potentiated arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, exposure of PAECs to NAC alleviated the arsenite-induced JNK/AP-1 activation and apoptosis, whereas exposure of PAECs to BSO enhanced the arsenite-induced JNK/AP-1 activation and apoptosis. These results indicated that an increase in GSH content represented one of the detoxification mechanisms responding to arsenite exposure and probably played critical roles in the regulation of stress-response signaling molecules as well as in protection of PAECs from arsenite attack.Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2004; 17(2):208-17. · 3.67 Impact Factor