Tri-cistronic cloning, overexpression and purification of human Rad9, Rad1, Hus1 protein complex
ABSTRACT The least understood components of the DNA damage checkpoint are the DNA damage sensors. Genetic studies of Schizosaccharomyces pombe identified six yeast genes, Rad3, Rad17, Rad9, Rad1, Hus1, and Rad26, which encode proteins thought to sense DNA damage and activate the checkpoint-signaling cascade. It has been suggested that Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 make a heterotrimeric complex forming a PCNA-like structure. In order to carry out structural and biophysical studies of the complex and its associated proteins, the cDNAs encoding full length human Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 were cloned together into the pET28a vector using a one-step ligation procedure. Here we report successful tri-cistronic cloning, overexpression and purification of this three-protein complex using a single hexa-histidine tag. The trimeric protein complex of Rad9, Rad1 and Hus1 was purified to near homogeneity, yielding ∼10 mg of protein from one liter of Escherichia coli culture.
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ABSTRACT: A family of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, DNA recombination, and the detection of DNA damage has been recently identified. One of the members of this family, human ATM, is defective in the cells of patients with ataxia telangiectasia and is involved in detection and response of cells to damaged DNA. Other members include Mei-41 (Drosophila melanogaster), Mec1p (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and Rad3 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), which are required for the S and G2/M checkpoints, as well as FRAP (Homo sapiens) and Torl/2p (S. cerevisiae), which are involved in a rapamycin-sensitive pathway leading to G1 cell cycle progression. We report here the cloning of a human cDNA encoding a protein with significant homology to members of this family. Three overlapping clones isolated from a Jurkat T-cell cDNA library revealed a 7.9-kb open reading frame encoding a protein that we have named FRP1 (FRAP-related protein) with 2644 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 301 kDa. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and a full-length cDNA FRP1 clone, the FRP1 gene has been mapped to the chromosomal locus 3q22-q24. FRP1 is most closely related to three of the PIK-related kinase family members involved in checkpoint function--Mei-41, Mec1p, and Rad3--and as such may be the functional human counterpart of these proteins.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1996; 93(7):2850-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in DNA repair/cell cycle checkpoint genes can lead to the development of cancer. The cloning of human homologs of yeast DNA repair/cell cycle checkpoint genes should yield candidates for human tumor suppressor genes as well as identifying potential targets for cancer therapy. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes rad17, rad1, and hus1 have been identified as playing roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control pathways. We have cloned the cDNA for the human homolog of S. pombe rad17, RAD17, which localizes to chromosomal location 5q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping; the cDNA for the human homolog of S. pombe rad1, RAD1, which maps to 5p14-p13.2; and the cDNA for the human homolog of S. pombe hus1, HUS1, which maps to 7p13-p12. The human gene loci have previously been identified as regions containing tumor suppressor genes. In addition, we report the cloning of the cDNAs for genes related to S. pombe rad17, rad9, rad1, and hus1 from mouse, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. These include Rad17 and Rad9 from D. melanogaster, hpr-17 and hpr-1 from C. elegans, and RAD1 and HUS1 from mouse. The identification of homologs of the S. pombe rad checkpoint genes from mammals, arthropods, and nematodes indicates that this cell cycle checkpoint pathway is conserved throughout eukaryotes.Genomics 01/1999; 54(3):424-36. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intensity autocorrelation functions of light scattered by lysozyme solutions under pre-crystallization conditions in NaCl-containing media were recorded at scattering angles from 20 degrees to 90 degrees. The measurements, conducted on freshly prepared protein solutions supersaturated more than 3-fold, indicate the simultaneous presence of two scatterer populations which can be assigned to individual protein molecules and to large particles. When solutions are undersaturated, or slightly supersaturated, light scattering only reveals the presence of the small scatterers. In the supersaturated medium, where aggregates were detected, lysozyme crystals grew in a time-span of 1-3 days after the scattering experiments. These results are medium, where aggregates were detected, lysozyme crystals grew in a time-span of 1-3 days after the scattering experiments. These results are correlated with the nucleation step during protein crystallization.FEBS Letters 01/1992; 295(1-3):84-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor