Adolescence is the transition period that prepares individuals for fulfilling their role as adults. Most conspicuous in this transition period is the peak level of risk-taking behaviors that characterize adolescent motivated behavior. Significant neural remodeling contributes to this change. This review focuses on the functional neuroanatomy underlying motivated behavior, and how ontogenic changes can explain the typical behavioral patterns in adolescence. To help model these changes and provide testable hypotheses, a neural systems-based theory is presented. In short, the Triadic Model proposes that motivated behavior is governed by a carefully orchestrated articulation among three systems, approach, avoidance and regulatory. These three systems map to distinct, but overlapping, neural circuits, whose representatives are the striatum, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Each of these system-representatives will be described from a functional anatomy perspective that includes a review of their connectivity and what is known of their ontogenic changes.
"The interaction of emotion and executive control of behavior is a crucial focal point for understanding the neural basis of decision making in high-risk situations such as those involving drug use or self-harm. Explanations of high risk behavior tendencies have emphasized individual differences and developmental changes in emotion processes, reward processing, and executive control of behavior and emotions (Jessor, 1991; Arnett, 1992, 1994, 1996; Ernst et al., 2006; Steinberg, 2007; Casey et al., 2008; Ernst and Mueller, 2008; Gullo and Dawe, 2008; Steinberg, 2008; Ernst and Fudge, 2009; Romer et al., 2009; Romer, 2010; Casey et al., 2011; Dalley et al., 2011; Mitchell, 2011; Blakemore and Robbins, 2012; Whelan et al., 2012). We used an emotional Go/NoGo task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate processes related to response inhibition and emotion processing in a sample of 21 adolescents (age 14–17 years) with a range of risk behavior tendencies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14–17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents.
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 09/2015; 9(124).
"Furthermore, EC has been associated with the function of the executive attention network during cognitive tasks such as task switching, working memory tasks and sequential inhibition tasks (Posner and Rothbart, 2009; Posner, 2012). These tasks have been related to activity in the frontoparietal attention system (Ernst and Fudge, 2009). For example, functional neuroimaging studies suggest that dispositional EC is positively associated with activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal regions (Kanske and Kotz, 2013; Kennis et al., 2013). "
"Adolescence is arguably one of the most profound developmental transitions across the lifespan marked by deep neurobiological and social-relational changes, next only in significance to those occurring in infancy and early childhood (Ernst & Fudge, 2009; Spear, 2013). It is a developmental period that offers immense opportunities for positive growth, but it is also associated with vulnerability to a broad range of mental health problems, including conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and eating disorders (e.g., Andersen & Teicher, 2008; Romer & Walker, 2007; Spear, 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that account for treatment effects are poorly understood. The current study examined processes that may underlie treatment outcomes of an attachment-based intervention (Connect) for parents of pre-teens and teens with serious behavior problems. Parents (N = 540) in a non-randomized trial reported on their teen's functioning prior to and following treatment. Results confirmed significant decreases in parents' reports of teens' externalizing and internalizing symptoms, replicating prior evaluations of this program. Reductions in parents' reports of teen attachment avoidance were associated with decreases in externalizing symptoms, while reductions in parents' reports of teen attachment anxiety were associated with decreases in internalizing symptoms. Parents' reports of improved teen affect regulation were also associated with decreases in both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results were comparable across gender and for parents of teens with pre-treatment externalizing symptoms in the clinical versus sub-clinical range. A model of therapeutic change in attachment-based parenting programs is discussed.
Attachment & Human Development 03/2015; 17(2):1-17. DOI:10.1080/14616734.2015.1006383 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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