Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes
ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium affecting about half of the world population, causing chronic gastritis type B dominated by activated phagocytes. In some patients the disease evolves into gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. The pathogenesis is in part caused by the immunological response. In mouse models and in human disease, the mucosal immune response is characterized by activated phagocytes. Mucosal T-lymphocytes are producing IFN-γ thus increasing mucosal inflammation and mucosal damage. A low dietary intake of antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamin C may be an important factor for acquisition of H. pylori by humans. Dietary antioxidants may also affect both acquisition of the infection and the bacterial load of H. pylori infected mice. Antioxidants, including carotenoids, have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dietary antoxidant induced modulation of H. pylori in mice affected the cytokines produced by H. pylori specific T-cells. We found that treatment of H. pylori infected mice with an algal cell extract containing the antioxidant astaxanthin reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation. These changes are associated with a shift of the T-lymphocyte response from a predominant Th1-response dominated by IFN-γ to a Th1/Th2-response with IFN-γ and IL-4. To our knowledge, a switch from a Th1-response to a mixed Th1/Th2-response during an ongoing infection has not been reported previously.
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ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent used in the treatment of several cancers as well as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis. It is used against several cancers due to its broad spectrum efficacy, but at the same time possesses unwanted risks for occupational exposure as well as therapy related toxicities to patients. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of astaxanthin (AST) a red carotenoid pigment on CP induced germ cell toxicity in male mice. CP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at the dose of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight to mice (20-25 g) once in a week for a period of five weeks. AST was given at the dose of 25mg/kg per oral (p.o.) for five consecutive days in a week for five weeks. The animals were sacrificed one week after the last injection of CP. The protective effect of AST against CP induced male germ cell toxicity was evaluated using body weight, testes and epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay, histology of testes and TUNEL assay. AST treatment significantly improved the testes weight, sperm count and sperm head morphology as compared to only CP treated animals. The result of comet assay showed that AST treatment significantly restored the sperm DNA damage induced by CP. Further, AST treatment showed protection against CP induced testicular toxicity as evident from testes histology and TUNEL assay. The present results indicate the chemoprotective potential of AST against CP induced germ cell toxicity in mice.Toxicology 07/2008; 248(2-3):96-103. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2008.03.015 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the pre-clinical level with humans. This paper reviews the current available evidence regarding astaxanthin chemistry and its potential beneficial effects in humans.Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 02/2006; 46(2):185-96. DOI:10.1080/10408690590957188 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Idiopathic parkinsonism (IP) is a common disorder, conventionally regarded as neurodegenerative. Its cardinal features, poverty and slowness of movement, muscle rigidity, postural abnormality and a characteristic tremor, are associated with loss of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra of the brain. Genetic factors explain only a minority of cases, and a common toxic environmental insult remains elusive. We propose that IP is a systemic disorder resulting from a ubiquitous peripheral infection, and that only the tip of the iceberg comes to diagnosis. There is evidence for inflammatory/immune activation peripherally and in the brain. We have used statistical modelling to explore links with non-specific and specific systemic markers of inflammation/infection in IP probands, and explore whether their partners and siblings have a frank or pre-presentation parkinsonian state. Critical to this approach is continuous objective measures of the facets of IP. Hypotheses on causality and mechanism are based on the statistical models. There is pathological and clinical evidence for direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in IP. The candidacy of Helicobacter pylori infection as a trigger event or driving infection is relatively high. We have found that eliminating infection in late parkinsonism with cachexia, a stage usually considered intractable, can result in a U-turn. However, eradication therapy may not provide a complete solution. Persistence of antibody against cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), increases the predicted probability of being labelled as having parkinsonism. Evidence for autoimmunity and immunocompromise is used to build schemes for the natural history. We conclude that current classifications of neuropsychiatric disease may not prove the best with respect to defining sub-clinical disease, prophylaxis or halting progression.FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 06/2005; 44(2):129-35. DOI:10.1016/j.femsim.2005.01.011 · 2.55 Impact Factor