Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium affecting about half of the world population, causing chronic gastritis type B dominated by activated phagocytes. In some patients the disease evolves into gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. The pathogenesis is in part caused by the immunological response. In mouse models and in human disease, the mucosal immune response is characterized by activated phagocytes. Mucosal T-lymphocytes are producing IFN-γ thus increasing mucosal inflammation and mucosal damage. A low dietary intake of antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamin C may be an important factor for acquisition of H. pylori by humans. Dietary antioxidants may also affect both acquisition of the infection and the bacterial load of H. pylori infected mice. Antioxidants, including carotenoids, have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dietary antoxidant induced modulation of H. pylori in mice affected the cytokines produced by H. pylori specific T-cells. We found that treatment of H. pylori infected mice with an algal cell extract containing the antioxidant astaxanthin reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation. These changes are associated with a shift of the T-lymphocyte response from a predominant Th1-response dominated by IFN-γ to a Th1/Th2-response with IFN-γ and IL-4. To our knowledge, a switch from a Th1-response to a mixed Th1/Th2-response during an ongoing infection has not been reported previously.
"Known for its antioxidant activity, Asta is also recognized to have anti-cancer , anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory  properties. It is present in many dietary supplements and is used for sperm quality improvement treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR). Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC). Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam) and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC). Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells.
"It has several essential biological functions: protection against UV light effects, inflammation, aging and age-related diseases, and the promotion of the immune response in the liver, kidney, heart, eyes and joints. It promotes prostate health, protects membranous phospholipids and other lipids from peroxidation , and has also been associated with shifts in inflammation response . Clinical studies have also demonstrated reductions in the cardiovascular risk markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as improved blood status [125,126]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases.
"AST is found abundantly in the red-orange pigment of marine animals such as salmon (and salmon roe) and the shell of crabs and shrimp. AST and AST-like products are commonly indicated as antioxidants  and immune modulators . One of the effects of AST is to scavenge reactive oxygen species . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice.
C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm². Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity.
UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (p<0.01), in a doses dependent manner. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed in AST-treated eyes than controls after irradiation (p<0.01). AST also reduced oxidative stress in irradiated corneas. The in vitro study showed less cytotoxicity of TKE2 cells in AST-treated cultures after UVB-irradiation (p<0.01). The cytoprotective effect increased with the dose of AST.
Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications.
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