Relationship between α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone- and neuropeptide Y-containing neurons in the goldfish hypothalamus
ABSTRACT Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibits, whereas ICV injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates food intake in the goldfish. However, there is little information about the functional relationship between α-MSH-induced anorexigenic and NPY-induced orexigenic actions in the goldfish. In this study we examined the relationship between α-MSH- and NPY-containing neurons in the goldfish hypothalamus to investigate whether these α-MSH- and NPY-containing neurons have direct mutual inputs. α-MSH- and NPY-like immunoreactivities were distributed throughout the brain, especially in the diencephalon. In particular, α-MSH-containing nerve fibers or endings lay in close apposition to NPY-containing neurons in a specific region of the hypothalamus, the nucleus posterioris periventricularis (NPPv). NPY-containing nerve fibers or endings also lay in close apposition to α-MSH-containing neurons specifically in the interior part of the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLTi). We also investigated the effect of ICV injection of melanocortin 4 receptor agonist (melanotan II) at 100 pmol/g body weight (BW), which is enough to suppress food intake, or NPY at 10 pmol/g BW, which is enough to enhance food intake, on expression levels of mRNA for NPY or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. ICV injection of melanotan II and NPY induced a significant decrease in the expression levels for NPY and POMC mRNA, respectively. These observations suggest that α-MSH- and NPY-containing neurons share direct mutual inputs in the NPPv and the NLTi of the hypothalamus, and that α-MSH and NPY functionally interact or exhibit mutual inhibition to regulate feeding behavior in the goldfish.
Article: Neuropeptide Y in tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes): distribution, cloning, characterization, and mRNA expression responses to prandial condition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in rodents. However, the involvement of NPY in feeding behavior has not well been studied in fish. Therefore, we investigated the role of NPY in food intake using a tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) model. We observed the distribution of NPY-like immunoreactivity in the brain. Neuronal cell bodies containing NPY were located in the telencephalon, hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and medulla oblongata, and their nerve fibers were also found throughout the brain. We cloned two cDNAs, encoding NPYa and NPYb orthologs, respectively, from the brain, and also confirmed two genes encoding these NPYs in the Takifugu genome database. We examined the distribution of these transcripts in the brain using real-time PCR. Levels of NPYa mRNA in the telencephalon, mesencephalon and hypothalamus were much higher than in the medulla oblongata and cerebellum, whereas levels of NPYb mRNA in the medulla oblongata were higher than in other regions. We also examined prandial effects on the expression level of these transcripts in the telencephalon and hypothalamus. NPYa mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, but not in the telencephalon, obtained from fish fasted for one week were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. The level was decreased at 2 h after feeding. Levels of NPYb mRNA were not affected by prandial conditions. These results suggest that NPY is present throughout the brain, and that NPYa, but not NPYb, in the hypothalamus is involved in the feeding regulation in the tiger puffer.ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 12/2011; 28(12):882-90. · 0.95 Impact Factor