This paper presents an overview of the results from a recently completed study on the assessment of the characteristics, current energy consumption and the potential for energy conservation in 29 Hellenic airports. The average annual total energy consumption at the airport terminals is 234 kWh/m2. A more detailed investigation for three representative airports, at different climatic zones, was also performed. Data was collected through energy audits of the three terminal buildings, thermal infrared (IR) inspections of the building envelopes and HVAC installations, an assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through long term monitoring and spot measurements of indoor thermal and visual conditions, as well as personnel and passenger questionnaires. The collected information was used to perform a detailed analysis using thermal simulations for assessing specific measures to reduce energy use without compromising comfort, and to identify possible actions for improving IEQ. For the three airports, potential energy savings range at 15–35%, while improving and maintaining indoor environmental quality.
"Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) studies suggest that 30% energy savings can be realized through improvements to facilities and facility management, while more aggressive measures promise greater reductions. The potential for dramatic gains in building efficiency through intelligent management of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in commercial buildings has led to considerable recent research activity , , , , . Energy efficiency measures must be sensitive to human factor issues such as comfort and indoor air quality , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a novel distributed architecture for controlling Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings. Zone Modules use local models and measurements to compute requests for HVAC service over various future time windows. These requests are expressed in terms of the heating/cooling service required which we can conceptually regard as tokens. A Central Scheduler balances token requests and allocates tokens to each zone for
the next time slot. This allocation attempts to minimize total energy consumption while respecting operational constraints. Zone modules update their local models based on the measured thermal responses resulting from allocated tokens, and recompute forward token requests.
This proposed token based architecture is inspired by medium access control protocols in communication networks. It offers several advantages in the context of HVAC systems. The architecture is scalable to realistic buildings with 200-500 thermal zones, it is robust relative to non-stationary environmental conditions and unanticipated changes in user needs, and it is modular enabling low-cost deployment without requiring expensive custom thermal modeling of buildings. We develop the zone module algorithms for computing token requests and central scheduler algorithms to allocate tokens. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that the performance loss of our token based scheduling strategy is modest in comparison to a fully centralized nonlinear optimal control scheme.
"Buildings are responsible for at least 40 per cent of energy use in most countries. In the EU region for instance, 40-45 per cent of the total energy used is consumed by buildings (Balaras et al., 2002, 2003; Markis and Paravantis, 2007; Fayaz and Kari, 2009). This striking figure is mainly the result of using mechanical and electrical equipment as part of M&E systems in building for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and lighting. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case of an office building in England and show how the technology in energy efficiency in building will contribute to energy conservation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a case of an office building. The building is then modelled and analysed using IES Virtual Environment VE to estimate the Target Emissions Rate (TER) and the Building Emissions Rate (BER) to see how the building could satisfy Part L of the Building Regulations. Findings – The building in case use various sustainable solutions such as limiting the heat loss and gain through the fabric, ventilation system with a good high heat recovery system, increasing the availability of daylight and good lighting control system. The office building in the case study is in full compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations. The sustainable technology in the building will assist the compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations. Research limitations/implications – This is a single case study building; more case studies for buildings of this nature are required. Practical implications – The paper demonstrates various feasible solutions of sustainable technology in buildings that might help comply with the regulation. Originality/value – The case study building is a real case taken directly from one of the author's projects when he was working as a building services engineer. This case study building and its sustainable features have not been presented before in an academic journal.
International Journal of Energy Sector Management 06/2012; 6(2):175-188. DOI:10.1108/17506221211242059
"and Balaris et al.  attributed in the modern architecture . In examining the environmental issues one can easily identify the inefficient usage of energy, climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and acid rain as the most crucial dilemmas. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper deals with a novel approach to study renewable energy options for buildings to make them more efficient, more cost effective, more environmentally benign, and more technologically attractive. To demonstrate the application of this study, four buildings are chosen as case studies with two from the residential sector, one commercial/institutional building, and one industrial building. A ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a solar water heater for space heating and/or hot water, and a photovoltaic panel to generate electricity are designed for these case studies. Attempt is made to design projects under hybrid systems combined from two technologies are developed for the above-mentioned four cases. Results obtained indicate that solar thermal option for hot water and space heating becomes the most cost effective one for all cases (e.g., $4956 for Cases 1 and 2 and $70,652 for Case 3, and $91,361 for Case 4). In addition, solar electricity through PVs is technologically the most suitable one to meet the electricity demand. The ground source heat pump option is quite attractive from the efficiency and environmental impact point of views although it requires installation and maintenance, etc. Finally, hybrid systems provide better advantages, such as higher efficiency, reduced cost, reduced emissions, etc.Research highlights▶ Potential renewable energy options for buildings. ▶ Sustainable buildings. ▶ Technology assessment. ▶ Economics of renewable energy systems.
Energy and Buildings 01/2011; 43(1):56-65. DOI:10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.08.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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