Anxiety sensitivity and menstrual cycle reactivity: Psychophysiological and self-report differences
ABSTRACT The role of anxiety sensitivity in the etiology and maintenance of various anxiety disorders has received increased attention over the past decade. To date, no studies have empirically addressed the relationship between anxiety sensitivity, physiological reactivity, and self-reports of anxiety symptomatology across the menstrual cycle. In this study, high- and low-anxiety sensitivity women in either the premenstrual or intermenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle completed questionnaires and listened to anxiety and neutral scenes while psychophysiological data were collected. In addition, mood ratings were obtained at baseline and after scene presentations. High anxiety sensitivity sitivity participants scored higher on measures of anxiety, depression, and menstrual distress than low anxiety sensitivity females. Premenstrually, high anxiety sensitivity females exhibited greater skin conductance response frequency and magnitude to the anxiety scenes compared to the other three groups. Similar results were obtained when initial levels of state anxiety and panic history were controlled for statistically. Furthermore, high anxiety sensitivity females reported more anxiety and depressed mood following presentation of anxiety scenes. Implications of these results for the mediation of menstrual cycle timing and anxiety sensitivity hypotheses are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) instigates mutations and DNA breaks in Ig genes that undergo somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination during B cell activation in response to immunization and infection. This review discusses how AID expression and activity are regulated, including recent discoveries of AID-interacting proteins that might recruit AID to Ig genes, and allow it to target both DNA strands. Also discussed is the accumulating evidence that AID binds to, mutates, and creates breaks at numerous non-Ig sites in the genome, which initiates cell transformation and malignancies.Trends in Immunology 05/2011; 32(5):194-201. · 9.49 Impact Factor
- Trends in Molecular Medicine 07/2011; 17(10):537-8. · 9.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and anxiety-related sensations) and menstrual cycle phase (premenstrual phase vs. follicular phase) on panic-relevant responding (i.e., cognitive and physical panic symptoms, subjective anxiety, and skin conductance level). Women completed a baseline session and underwent a 3-min 10 % CO(2)-enriched air biological challenge paradigm during her premenstrual and follicular menstrual cycle phases. Participants were 55 women with no current or past history of panic disorder recruited from the general community (M (age) = 26.18, SD = 8.9) who completed the biological challenge during both the premenstrual and follicular cycle phases. Results revealed that women higher on AS demonstrated increased cognitive panic symptoms in response to the challenge during the premenstrual phase as compared to the follicular phase, and as compared to women lower on AS assessed in either cycle phase. However, the interaction of AS and menstrual cycle phase did not significantly predict physical panic attack symptoms, subjective ratings of anxiety, or skin conductance level in response to the challenge. Results are discussed in the context of premenstrual exacerbations of cognitive, as opposed to physical, panic attack symptoms for high AS women, and the clinical implications of these findings.Archives of Women s Mental Health 08/2012; · 2.01 Impact Factor