Evidence that the σ1 receptor is not directly coupled to G proteins
ABSTRACT Sigma (σ) receptors have been implicated in psychosis, cognition, neuroprotection, and locomotion in the central nervous system. The signal transduction mechanisms for σ receptors have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the possible coupling between σ1 receptors and heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) in rodent brain. In σ1 receptor-rich cerebellar membrane preparations, the competitive binding curves of two σ1 agonists, (+)pentazocine and 1S,2R-(−)-cis-N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexylamine (BD737), were unaffected by the addition of 10 μM guanosine-5′-O-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (GTPγS). Neither (+)pentazocine (1–100 μM) nor BD737 (0.01–10 μM) stimulated GTPase activities significantly above basal levels in agonist-stimulated GTPase activity assays in cerebellar membranes. Furthermore, when using the method of agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding as assessed by autoradiography, we did not observe significant stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding in rat brain sections by either (+)pentazocine or BD737. The above results demonstrate that the σ1 receptor is not likely be directly coupled to G proteins.
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ABSTRACT: Three different syndromes produced by congeners of morphine have been identified in the nondependent chronic spinal dog. These syndromes have been attributed to interaction of agonists with three distinguishable receptors (mu, kappa and sigma). Morphine is the prototype agonist for the mu receptor, ketocyclazocine for the kappa receptor and SKF-10,047 for the sigma receptor. The morphine syndrome (mu) in the dog is characterized by miosis, bradycardia, hypothermia, a general depression of the nociceptive responses and indifference to environmental stimuli. Ketocyclazocine (kappa) constricts pupils, depresses the flexor reflex and produces sedation but does not markedly alter pulse rate or the skin twitch reflex. SKF-10,047 (sigma), in contrast to morphine and ketocyclazocine, causes mydriasis, tachypnea, tachycardia and mania. The effects of these three drugs can be antagonized by the pure antagonist naltrexone, indicating that they are agonists. Further, chronic administration of morphine, ketocyclazocine and SKF-10,047 induces tolerance to their agonistic effects. Morphine suppresses abstinence in morphine-dependent dogs while ketocyclazocine does not. Ketocyclazocine at best precipitated only a liminal abstinence syndrome in the morphine-dependent dog, indicating that it had little affinity for the morphine receptor. Ketocyclazocine thus appears to be a selective agonist at the kappa receptor. Further, it has been shown that buprenorphine is a partial agonist of the mu type which both suppressed and precipitated abstinence in the morphine-dependent dog while morphine and propoxyphene are stronger agonists. Apomorphine and SKF-10,047 produce similar pharmacologic effects suggesting that sigma activity may involve a dopaminergic mechanism.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/1976; 197(3):517-32. · 3.89 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurochemistry - J NEUROCHEM. 01/2002; 63(4):1311-1318.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sigma receptor subtypes have been identified in the hippocampus, yet their physiological role remains largely undefined. In the current study, we examined the role of sigma receptors in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-stimulated [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) release from rat hippocampal slices. Both sigma agonists (+)pentazocine and BD737 inhibited stimulated norepinephrine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The sigma1 antagonist DuP 734 completely antagonized the inhibition of release by all concentrations of BD737 tested. However, DuP 734 only partially reversed inhibition of release by (+)pentazocine concentrations above 100 nM. 1,3 Di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), but not haloperidol, antagonized BD737-mediated inhibition of release. DTG also completely antagonized inhibition of release by 100 nM (+)pentazocine yet haloperidol produced only a partial reversal. A combination of DuP 734 and haloperidol produced complete reversal of (+)pentazocine-mediated inhibition, suggesting potential involvement of multiple sigma receptor subtypes in the regulation of norepinephrine release. Both (+)pentazocine and BD737 failed to inhibit stimulated release in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that sigma receptors regulating NE release are not located on noradrenergic nerve terminals. These results suggest that sigma receptors may be a therapeutic target for disorders resulting from noradrenergic imbalance in hippocampus.Brain Research 03/1995; 673(1):61-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor