Dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect of emodin against acetaminophen-induced acute damage in rats
ABSTRACT Protective effect of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone), an active compound of Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., was evaluated against acetaminophen-induced biochemical and histological alterations in rats. Acetaminophen (2 g/kg, po) administration caused significant elevation in the release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin and serum protein with concomitant decrease in hemoglobin and blood sugar after 24 h of its administration. Toxicant exposure intensified the lipid peroxidation and altered glutathione status, activities of adenosine triphosphatase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase as well as major cellular constituents i.e., protein, glycogen and total cholesterol in liver and kidney. Treatment of emodin (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, po) significantly lessened the toxicity by protecting acetaminophen-induced alterations in various blood and tissue biochemical variables after 24 h of its administration. Acetaminophen administration initiated histological damage in liver. Some degree of protection was seen after emodin therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin at doses of 30 and 40 mg/kg effectively reversed toxic events induced by acetaminophen as same as silymarin (50 mg/kg, po). Thus, the study concluded that emodin at a dose of 30 mg/kg (po) possesses optimum hepatoprotective ability against acetaminophen-induced toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:538317. DOI:10.1155/2015/538317 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative, was investigated for potential anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in vitro. The potential to induce these outcomes was assessed using concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Dose-response studies showed that emodin at 100 µM was not cytotoxic to naive cells, and that the same dose caused proliferation to be significantly reduced in ConA-stimulated cells. In addition, emodin significantly reduced ConA-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation/release of TH1 (IL-2, IFNγ, TNFα) and TH17 (IL-6 and IL-17) cell cytokines, but induced those of TH2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cells. From the results, it is concluded that earlier-reported immunomodulatory effects imparted by emodin may have been attributable, in part, to anti-proliferative effects on lymphocytes, as well as a shift within the TH1/TH2 and TH17/Treg balance (towards TH2 and Treg). These findings, while providing evidence of mechanisms of emodin immunomodulation, are also potentially important for sparking studies that ultimately may result in the potential use of this agent in preventive and/or corrective strategies against autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases.Journal of Immunotoxicology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/1547691X.2014.995243 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of selenium (Se) on methimazole (MMI; an antithyroid drug)-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats and their progeny. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats in each group: group I served as controls that received standard diet; group II received MMI in drinking water as 250 mg L(-1) and standard diet; group III received both MMI (250 mg L(-1), orally) and Se (0.5 mg kg(-1) of diet); group IV received Se (0.5 mg kg(-1) of diet) as sodium selenite. Treatments were started from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Exposure of rats to MMI promoted oxidative stress with an increase in liver malondialdehyde levels, advanced oxidation protein products and protein carbonyl contents and a decrease in the levels of glutathione, nonprotein thiols and vitamin C. A decrease in the activities of liver glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase and in the levels of plasma total protein and albumin was also observed. Plasma transaminase activities and total, direct and indirect bilirubin levels increased. Coadministration of Se through diet improved all biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes confirmed the biochemical results. Therefore, our investigation revealed that Se, a trace element with antioxidant properties, was effective in preventing MMI-induced liver damage.Toxicology and Industrial Health 10/2012; 30(7). DOI:10.1177/0748233712462445 · 1.71 Impact Factor