Evaluation of levels, sources and distribution of airborne trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ABSTRACT The main goal of this work is to assess the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and airborne particulate trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, a region of the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, where the pollution sources are local industries, vehicular emissions and natural inputs.The sampling was performed using a high volume pump. The TSP levels were determined by gravimetry and the metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Geometrical means between 55.4±15.9 and 241.5±40.0 μg m−3 were determined for TSP, which are higher than both the Brazilian primary and secondary standards of air quality. Enrichment factors show that Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb are due to anthropic emissions. Zn, Cu and Cd levels are high in comparison with other urban and industrial areas. Mean concentrations are 1.1–88 times, 2.9–60.9 times and 3.0–130.0 times higher than reported values for other industrial areas, for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively.It was not possible to identify a geometrical or seasonal distribution within the Baixada Fluminense area performing cluster and principal component analyses.
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this paper were to quantify the heavy metals (HM) in the air of different sites in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Salvador (SA) using Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) as a biomonitor, and to study the morphology and elemental composition of the air particulate matter (PM) retained on the Tillandsia surface. Tillandsia samples were collected in a noncontaminated area and exposed to the air of five sites in RJ State and seven in SA for 45 days, in two seasons. Samples were prepared to HM quantification by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while morphological and elemental characterizations were studied by using scanning electron microscopy. HM concentrations were significantly higher when compared to control sites. We found an increasing metal concentration as follows: Cd < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn. PM exhibited a morphology varying from amorphous- to polygonal-shaped particles. Size measurements indicated that more than 80% of particles were less than 10 μm. PM contained aluminosilicates iron-rich particles, but Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ba were also detected. HM input in the atmosphere was mainly associated with anthropogenic sources such as vehicle exhaust. Elemental analysis detected HM in the inhalable particles, indicating that those HMs may intensify the toxic effects of PM on human health. Our results indicated T. usneoides as an adequate biomonitor of HM in the PM belonging to the inhalable fraction.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 03/2011; 18(3):416-27. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The paper discusses ambient concentrations of PM(2.5) (ambient fine particles) and of 29 PM(2.5)-related elements in Zabrze and Katowice, Poland, in 2007. The elemental composition of PM(2.5) was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The mobility (cumulative percentage of the water-soluble and exchangeable fractions of an element in its total concentration) of 18 PM(2.5)-related elements in Zabrze and Katowice was computed by using sequential extraction and EDXRF combined into a simple method. The samples were extracted twice: in deionized water and in ammonium acetate. In general, the mobility and the concentrations of the majority of the elements were the same in both cities. S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Br, Ba, and Pb in both cities, Ti and Se in Katowice, and Sr in Zabrze had the mobility greater than 70%. Mobility of typical crustal elements, Al, Si, and Ti, because of high proportion of their exchangeable fractions in PM, was from 40 to 66%. Mobility of Fe and Cu was lower than 30%. Probable sources of PM(2.5) were determined by applying principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis and computing enrichment factors. Great part of PM(2.5) (78% in Katowice and 36% in Zabrze) originated from combustion of fuels in domestic furnaces (fossil fuels, biomass and wastes, etc.) and liquid fuels in car engines. Other identified sources were: power plants, soil, and roads in Zabrze and in Katowice an industrial source, probably a non-ferrous smelter or/and a steelwork, and power plants.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 03/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Air quality in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro was evaluated by analysis of particulate matter (PM) in industrial (Santa Cruz) and rural (Seropédica) areas. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) collected in filters over 24 h were quantified and their chemical composition determined. TSP exceeded Brazilian guidelines (80 μg m −3) in Santa Cruz, while PM 2.5 levels exceeded the World Health Organization guidelines (10 μg m −3) in both locations. Filters were extracted with water and/or HNO 3 , and the concentrations of 20 elements, mostly metals, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Water soluble inorganic anions were determined by ion chromatography (IC). To estimate the proportion of these elements extracted, a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1648a, Urban Dust) was subjected to the same extraction process. Concordant results were obtained by ICP-MS and ICP OES for most elements. Some elements could not be quantified by both techniques; the most appropriate technique was chosen in each case. The urban dust was also analyzed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) method, which employs a combination of hydrochloric and nitric acids for the extraction, but higher extraction efficiency was obtained when only nitric acid was employed. The US EPA method gave better results only for Sb. In the PM samples, the elements found in the highest average concentrations by ICP were Zn and Al (3–6 μg m −3). The anions found in the highest average concentrations were SO 4 2− in PM 2.5 (2–4 μg m −3) and Cl − in TSP (2–6 μg m −3). Principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with enrichment factors (EF) indicated industrial sources in PM 2.5 . Analysis of TSP suggested both anthropogenic and natural sources. In conclusion, this work contributes data on air quality, as well as a method for the analysis of PM samples by ICP-MS.3.141. 11/2013; 86:131.