Evaluation of levels, sources and distribution of airborne trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Departamento de Físico Química, Instituto de Química da UFRJ. CT, Bloco A, Sala 408, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900, Brazil; Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos, EMBRAPA Solos, Rua Jardim Botânico, 1024, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22460-000, Brazil
Atmospheric Environment 01/2005; DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.02.030

ABSTRACT The main goal of this work is to assess the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and airborne particulate trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, a region of the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, where the pollution sources are local industries, vehicular emissions and natural inputs.The sampling was performed using a high volume pump. The TSP levels were determined by gravimetry and the metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Geometrical means between 55.4±15.9 and 241.5±40.0 μg m−3 were determined for TSP, which are higher than both the Brazilian primary and secondary standards of air quality. Enrichment factors show that Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb are due to anthropic emissions. Zn, Cu and Cd levels are high in comparison with other urban and industrial areas. Mean concentrations are 1.1–88 times, 2.9–60.9 times and 3.0–130.0 times higher than reported values for other industrial areas, for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively.It was not possible to identify a geometrical or seasonal distribution within the Baixada Fluminense area performing cluster and principal component analyses.

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