Evaluation of levels, sources and distribution of airborne trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ABSTRACT The main goal of this work is to assess the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and airborne particulate trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, a region of the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, where the pollution sources are local industries, vehicular emissions and natural inputs.The sampling was performed using a high volume pump. The TSP levels were determined by gravimetry and the metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Geometrical means between 55.4±15.9 and 241.5±40.0 μg m−3 were determined for TSP, which are higher than both the Brazilian primary and secondary standards of air quality. Enrichment factors show that Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb are due to anthropic emissions. Zn, Cu and Cd levels are high in comparison with other urban and industrial areas. Mean concentrations are 1.1–88 times, 2.9–60.9 times and 3.0–130.0 times higher than reported values for other industrial areas, for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively.It was not possible to identify a geometrical or seasonal distribution within the Baixada Fluminense area performing cluster and principal component analyses.
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ABSTRACT: Speciation of three trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu) in air particulates of two Syrian cities (Tartous and Darya) with different climate conditions and industrial emissions has been studied. Air filters were collected during 2000–2001 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of trace elements. Approximately 60% of lead in air particulates of both cities was found to be associated with organic materials produced by incomplete burning of vehicles fuels and residential heating; the remaining 40% of lead was as lead oxides and mineral acids soluble compounds. Zinc was found in oxides (28–65%) samples collected in Tartous city, indicating that the Tartous cement factory and phosphate loading cargoes are the main source of emissions. In the Darya filters, zinc associated with organic materials (28–49%) was related to the presence of plastic molding industries and corroding car tires. In addition, copper was also found to be in the form of oxides (19–46%) in both cities in the summer periods, while 13–25% and 35% are associated with organic materials and silicates, respectively. Differences in chemical forms of the studied trace elements in air particulates were found to be related to differences in air pollution sources and differences in human behaviour throughout the year. Therefore, chemical fractionation of trace elements in air particulates using sequential leaching can be used for identification of air pollutions sources in urban and industrial areas.Atmospheric Environment 02/2006; DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.10.008 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For a long time the local Ordovician carbonate rocks were widely used for the building of many historical buildings, churches and strongholds in Tallinn. The chemical and mineralogical composition of building stone and gypsum black crust from five historical objects of Old Town of Tallinn were examined in order to reveal the weathering behaviour of the limestone and estimate the influence of pollution on the decay processes. The ICP-MS analysis and X-ray difractometry were performed to provide a quantitative analysis of the processes, which are responsible for building stone decay. The enrichment factor and R-mode factor analyses were applied in order to improve the understanding the nature and sources of elements and assess the pollution effect. The obtained results confirmed a natural origin for Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Ti, K, Na and Fe. The black crust is elevated in Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn concentrations as a result of the pollution effect. The highest increase of Cu, Pb and Zn content was determined in the samples from gypsum crust at St. Olaf's church. The enrichment factors calculation and factor analysis confirm the input of these elements from anthropic sources. Sulphur isotope composition in damaged building stone and black crust was used to discriminate the anthropic and natural sources of sulphur. The impact of technogenous sulphur in the gypsum formation in the black crust was revealed. The contribution of sulphur dissoluted from limestone is reflected in the positive delta values of sulphur. Comparison of obtained data to those for similar objects in European cities was carried out.Water Air and Soil Pollution 05/2006; 172(1):239-271. DOI:10.1007/s11270-006-9078-1 · 1.69 Impact Factor
- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 08/2006; 77(1):119-25. DOI:10.1007/s00128-006-1040-9 · 1.22 Impact Factor