Evaluation of levels, sources and distribution of airborne trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ABSTRACT The main goal of this work is to assess the concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and airborne particulate trace metals in seven districts of the Baixada Fluminense, a region of the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, where the pollution sources are local industries, vehicular emissions and natural inputs.The sampling was performed using a high volume pump. The TSP levels were determined by gravimetry and the metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Geometrical means between 55.4±15.9 and 241.5±40.0 μg m−3 were determined for TSP, which are higher than both the Brazilian primary and secondary standards of air quality. Enrichment factors show that Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb are due to anthropic emissions. Zn, Cu and Cd levels are high in comparison with other urban and industrial areas. Mean concentrations are 1.1–88 times, 2.9–60.9 times and 3.0–130.0 times higher than reported values for other industrial areas, for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively.It was not possible to identify a geometrical or seasonal distribution within the Baixada Fluminense area performing cluster and principal component analyses.
- SourceAvailable from: José M Baldasano
Article: Air quality data from large cities.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents an assessment of the air quality for the principal cities in developed and developing countries. Part of the vast and widely dispersed information on air quality that is available at this time on the Internet was compiled, thus making possible a comprehensive evaluation of the tendencies that emerged at the end of the 20th century. Likewise, these values are compared to the air quality thresholds recommended by two international organizations: guideline levels of the World Health Organization (WHO) and limit values of the European Union (EU), in order to determine air quality concentration levels in large cities around the world. The current situation of air quality worldwide indicates that SO(2) maintains a downward tendency throughout the world, with the exception of some Central American and Asian cities. NO(2) maintains levels very close to the WHO guideline value around the world. For particulate matter, it is a major problem in almost all of Asia, exceeding 300 microg/m(3) in many cities. Ozone shows average values that exceed the selected guideline values in all of the analyses demonstrating that it is a global problem. In general, the worldwide trend is to a reduction in the concentrations of pollutants because of the increasingly strong restrictions which local governments and international organizations impose. However, in poor countries and those with low average incomes, concentrations of air pollutants remain high and the trend will be the elevation of their ground levels as they develop, making the problem even worse.Science of The Total Environment 06/2003; 307(1-3):141-65. · 3.26 Impact Factor
- Environmental Science & Technology - ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL. 01/1996; 30(3):825-832.
- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2004; 72(5):916-22. · 1.11 Impact Factor