Reclassification of a pneumocandin-producing anamorph, Glarea lozoyensis gen. et sp. nov., previously identified as Zalerion arboricola
ABSTRACT The importance of pneumocandin BO as the fermentation-derived starting material for the antifungal drug candidate, MK-991, along with the identification of our production strain as Z. arboricola (ATCC 20868) as CBS prompted a search for other strains of Z. arboricola or Zalerion species with improved titres or that might produce natural pneumocandin analogues. Analysis of morphology, secondary metabolites profiles, and DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that ATCC 20868 was not congeneric with Z. arboricola. Ribosomal DNA sequences were compared among Zalerion species and pneumocandin-producing fungi and with rDNA sequences in GenBank. No good matches with sequences in GenBank were obtained for Z. arboricola or Z. maritimum, but for Z. varium, P. carpinea and ATCC 20868, relevant similarities were observed with ITS1 sequences from fungi of Leotiales. ATCC 20868 was phylogenetically more akin to P. carpinea, another pneumocandin producer, than initially suspected. The closest relative of ATCC 20868 seemed to be Hymenoscyphus monotropae. We conclude that the genus Zalerion is artificial; its species bear no phylogenetic relation among themselves. ATCC 20868 and Z. varium were related to fungi of the Leotiales. We propose a new anamorph genus and species, Glarea lozoyensis, to accommodate ATCC 20868.
- Transactions of the British Mycological Society 01/1972; 59(1).
- Botanica Marina - BOT MAR. 01/1987; 30(4):291-304.
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ABSTRACT: We have developed a liquid fermentation medium for the submerged culture of the fungus,Zalerion arboricola, which supports the rapid production of an echinocandin-type antibiotic, pneumocandin A0 (formerly L-671, 329), in yields increased at least 4-fold over those reported previously. The improvements were achieved through medium simplification, substitution of high levels of mannitol for glycerol as the major source of carbon, and restriction of available magnesium. Antibiotic formation in batch cultures with this mannitol-based medium is not confined to the idiophase; rather production appears to be biphasic, with synthesis beginning during growth (i.e., at day 3) and increasing in rate at day 11, well after rapid growth has ended. Accumulation of antibiotic continues beyond 14 days, and by 21 days titers greater than 500 g/ml are attained. For the synthesis of a related compound, pneumocandin B0, by a mutant strain ofZ. arboricola, the medium gives similar production kinetics and a titer of 800 g/ml. Although supplementation of the medium with magnesium ions stimulates growth, it decreases titer by preferentially affecting the second phase of antibiotic synthesis. This decline in synthesis in the magnesium-supplemented medium is explained by the depletion of mannitol before the second phase of synthesis can begin. In contrast, mannitol in the magnesium-limited medium is used more slowly with approximately half still available at day 11 to support continued antibiotic formation.Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/1993; 11(2):95-103. · 2.32 Impact Factor