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Reclassification of a pneumocandin-producing anamorph, Glarea lozoyensis gen. et sp. nov., previously identified as Zalerion arboricola

Natural Products Drug Discovery, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, 07065-0900, U.S.A.; Centra de Investigación Básica, Merck Sharp & Dohme de España, S.A., Josefa Valcárcel 38, 28027, Madrid, Spain
Mycological Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 02/1999; DOI: 10.1017/S095375629800687X

ABSTRACT The importance of pneumocandin BO as the fermentation-derived starting material for the antifungal drug candidate, MK-991, along with the identification of our production strain as Z. arboricola (ATCC 20868) as CBS prompted a search for other strains of Z. arboricola or Zalerion species with improved titres or that might produce natural pneumocandin analogues. Analysis of morphology, secondary metabolites profiles, and DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that ATCC 20868 was not congeneric with Z. arboricola. Ribosomal DNA sequences were compared among Zalerion species and pneumocandin-producing fungi and with rDNA sequences in GenBank. No good matches with sequences in GenBank were obtained for Z. arboricola or Z. maritimum, but for Z. varium, P. carpinea and ATCC 20868, relevant similarities were observed with ITS1 sequences from fungi of Leotiales. ATCC 20868 was phylogenetically more akin to P. carpinea, another pneumocandin producer, than initially suspected. The closest relative of ATCC 20868 seemed to be Hymenoscyphus monotropae. We conclude that the genus Zalerion is artificial; its species bear no phylogenetic relation among themselves. ATCC 20868 and Z. varium were related to fungi of the Leotiales. We propose a new anamorph genus and species, Glarea lozoyensis, to accommodate ATCC 20868.

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    ABSTRACT: Glarea lozoyensis is a filamentous fungus used for the industrial production of non-ribosomal peptide pneumocandin B0. In the scope of a whole genome sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the fungus has been assembled and annotated. It is the first one of the large polyphyletic Helotiaceae family. A phylogenetic analysis was performed based on conserved proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondrial genomes. The total size of the mitochondrial genome is 45,038 bp. It contains the expected 14 genes coding for proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation,two rRNA genes, six hypothetical proteins, three intronic genes of which two are homing endonucleases and a ribosomal protein rps3. Additionally there is a set of 33 tRNA genes. All genes are located on the same strand. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences confirmed that G. lozoyensis belongs to the order of Helotiales and that it is most closely related to Phialocephala subalpina. However, a comparison with the three other mitochondrial genomes known from Helotialean species revealed remarkable differences in size, gene content and sequence. Moreover, it was found that the gene order found in P. subalpina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not conserved in G. lozoyensis. The arrangement of genes and other differences found between the mitochondrial genome of G. lozoyensis and those of other Helotiales indicates a broad genetic diversity within this large order. Further mitochondrial genomes are required in order to determine whether there is a continuous transition between the different forms of mitochondrial genomes or G. lozoyensis belongs to a distinct subgroup within Helotiales.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74792. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Glarea lozoyensis is a filamentous fungus used for the industrial production of non-ribosomal peptide pneumocandin B0. In the scope of a whole genome sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the fungus has been assembled and annotated. It is the first one of the large polyphyletic Helotiaceae family. A phylogenetic analysis based on conserved proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondrial genomes confirms the classification of this fungus. Results: The total size of the mitochondrial genome is 45,038 bp. It contains the expected 14 genes coding for proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and two rRNA genes, six hypothetical proteins, three intronic genes of which two are homing endonucleases and a ribosomal protein rps3. Additionally there is a set of 33 tRNA genes. All genes are located on the same strand. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences confirmed that G. lozoyensis belongs to the order of Helotiales and that it is most closely related to Phialocephala subalpina. A comparison with the three other mitochondrial genomes known from Helotialean species revealed remarkable differences in size, gene content and sequence. Moreover, it was found that the gene order found in P. subalpina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not conserved in G. lozoyensis. Conclusion: The arrangement of genes and other differences found between the mitochondrial genome of G. lozoyensis and those of other Helotiales, indicates a broad genetic diversity within this large order. Further mitochondrial genomes are required in order to determine whether there is a continuous transition between the different forms of mitochondrial genomes or G. lozoyensis belongs to a distinct subgroup within Helotiales.
    PlosOne. 08/2013;