Evidence for the occurrence of selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase activity in rat liver microsomes
ABSTRACT Rat liver microsomes exhibit selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase activity which is associated with glutathione S-transferase activity. The peroxidase activity is not due to contamination with either soluble selenium-dependent or selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase activities of the cytosol. N-Ethylmaleimide treatment which stimulates rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase activity concomitantly stimulates the glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide depresses both enzyme activities of the cytosol. A protein exhibiting both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase activity was isolated from the microsomes and purified to homogeneity by DEAE cellulose ion-exchange and S-hexylglutathione Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography.
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ABSTRACT: This study is investigated the effect of selenium against neurotoxicity induced by MPTP(1-methy-4-phenyl-propion-oxypiperidine) in mice. In order to demonstrate neuroprotective activity of selenium, mice were administrated orally with selenium(25, 50, 100 , once/day) for 10 days, and MPTP(10 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously into the mice for 6 days from the beginning 1hr before selenium treatment. Test of rota road activity was inhibited by treatment with selenium in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity group when compared to MPTP treatment group in normal mice. Monoamine oxidase(MAO)-B activity and cerebral lipid peroxide content were significantly decreased in the treatment of selenium in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity group when compared to MPTP treatment group in normal mice and MAO-A was not affected. Activities of cerebral superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased in the treatment of selenium in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity group when compared to MPTP treatment group in normal mice. These results suggest that selenium might be estimated the result from the cooperative action of its inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase-B with that of the enhancement of antioxidant(SOD, catalase, GSH-Px) defence ability.Journal of Life Science. 01/2006; 16(2).
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ABSTRACT: Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1μM which peaked at 30min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p<0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p<0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 08/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
Article: Pulmonary antioxidants[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an antioxidant armanentarium which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate reductase, catalase, GSH synthetase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH transferase) and appears to function in keeping oxidant forces under control. Pollutants can upset the oxidant/antioxidant balance of cells by inhibiting vital enzymes, by reacting with oxidant scavengers, or by forming free radical intermediates which initiate uncontrolled tissue reactions with molecular oxygen. The book chapter reviews possible interactions between pollutants and the oxidant/antioxidant balance.11/2013;