The influence of pyrite pre-oxidation on gold recovery by cyanidation
ABSTRACT The influence of pyrite pre-oxidation in alkaline solutions on gold recovery by cyanidation from Twin Creek refractory gold ore in which pyrite was identified as the major sulfide mineral has been investigated with the aid of electrochemical measurements, leaching experiments, and direct analysis of reaction products for selected residues. It was found that gold recovery by cyanidation in bottle roll experiments mainly depended on the extent of pyrite pre-oxidation. The rate of pyrite oxidation in alkaline solutions measured by electrochemical measurements, including chronoamperometry and linear sweep voltammetry, increased with an increase in pH, potential, and temperature. All alkaline reagents used for the electrochemical measurements, NaOH, NH4OH, Na2CO3 and Ca(OH)2, showed a similar effect on pyrite oxidation kinetics. However, the results of alkaline pre-oxidation for pyrite of the Twin Creek refractory gold ore suggested that NaOH and Na2CO3/Ca(OH)2 were superior to Ca(OH)2. Without pre-oxidation, cyanide leachable gold was found to be only 20% which could be increased to 70% under appropriate pre-oxidation conditions. At the same time, cyanide consumption decreased from 2.5 kg/t ore to 1.5 kg/t ore.Selected residues after pre-oxidation and cyanidation were examined by X-ray diffraction. Backscattered electron images of pyrite particles in these residues were taken. The reaction products at the surface of pyrite particles were found to be iron-, silicon-, and calcium-bearing compounds with variable amounts of sulfur as determined by X-ray energy dispersion analysis. Additionally, some mineral fines, such as aluminum and/or potassium-bearing minerals, were found to be present at the partially oxidized pyrite surface.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Characterization of a pyritous mineral from a mine in the state of Sonora, Mexico, in conjunction with preliminary experimentation for the processes of simultaneous pressure oxidation and cyanide leaching was realized, modifying pressure, temperature, cyanide concentration and particle size. The results of the study and preliminary experimental tests of the simultaneous processes are shown.
World Gold 2013, Queensland, Australia; 01/2013
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the wealth of published data on the beneficial or detrimental effects of silver, lead, sulfide, and carbonaceous matter on the rate of gold cyanidation at an anode or by dissolved oxygen, the lack of comparative studies on relative effects has hampered rationalisation of the role of these activators or passivators of gold. In the present study, the published rate data per unit surface area of gold, silver, and gold–silver alloys based on electrochemical or chemical dissolution of rotating discs or foils of constant surface area in aerated cyanide solutions at ambient temperatures are analysed on the basis of the Levich equation. The current status of the reaction mechanism is also reviewed and updated on the basis of species distribution and potential–pH diagrams, stoichiometric factors, and interim chemical species of gold(I), silver(I), and lead(II). The anodic peak potentials of reported voltammograms closely follow the potential–pH lines of Au(I)/Au(0) and Pb(II)/Pb(0) couples. Despite the formation of stable complexes between lead(II), nitrate, and hydroxide ions, the total calculated soluble lead(II) in alkaline solutions of pH range 10–11 saturated with lead hydroxide is shown to beHydrometallurgy 01/2008; 90(1):46-73. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2007.09.013 · 2.22 Impact Factor